Branka Popović, Snežana Tanasković and Sonja Gvozdenac
From the economic perspective, the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera sp. virgifera (Col., Chrysomelidae), poses the gravest threat to the field maize production in Serbia. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of WCR larvae on the morphology of maize characters during a low-level artificial egg infestation. A field experiment involving the Serbian cultivar ‘NS-640’ was carried out in Bečej, Vojvodina Serbia, in 2016. In the experimental field, a total of 96 maize plants were selected, marked and arranged in 48 pairs. Each pair consisted of an infested plant (WCR eggs injected in the root zone) and an uninfested plant (distillate water injected in the root zone). The number of leaves, height and stem diameter of the plants observed were recorded. Root damage and root weight were measured and evaluated at the end of the trail. For the purpose of statistical analysis, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a correlation matrix were used. The statistical analysis performed indicate a highly significant difference in the number of leaves and plant height between the infested and uninfested maize plants examined in July (the third field observation). During the last field inspection, significant differences were recorded only between the stem diameters of the infested and uninfested maize plants. A negative correlation was found to exist between the root damage and root weight of the plant pairs. There were positive correlations between the stem diameter, plant height and number of leaves of the infested plants, whereas positive correlations were found between the root damage and plant height of the uninfested plants.
Plamen Zorovski, Vladislav Popov and Tonya Georgieva
During the 2014-2016 period in Agroecological Center at the Agricultural University - Plovdiv, Bulgaria growth and development of three species of wheat in terms of organic farming had been tracked in order to return the species in the crop rotation, maintenance of biodiversity and receiving of cleaner and healthy products from organic farms. The three species of wheat Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccum Sch, and Triticum spelta L., differ between its rate of growth, development, general and productive tillering. In tillering phase the plants reached 12,3 cm of height for Triticum monococcum L., 15,7 cm for Triticum spelta L. and 19,4 cm for Triticum dicoccum Sch. Triticum monococcum L. and Triticum dicoccum Sch, reached ear formation phase 5 days earlier than Triticum spelta L. The interfacial period of stem elongation - ear formation in them, was about 21 days compared to 25 days for Triticum spelta L.. From ear formation to full maturity inter-phase periods were shorter in Triticum dicoccum Sch., which specifies the species as an early mature (6 days earlier) compared to the other two. After phenophase of stem elongation plants were growing the most intensive and in full ripeness reached a height of 94 cm in Triticum monococcum L., 81,5 cm in Triticum dicoccum Sch. and 82,5 cm in Triticum spelta L.
The paper discusses the right to water as an integral part of a third generation rights in terms of its feasibility. The author tries to point out the need of participation of the private sector in solutions for effective elimination of indisputable humanitarian crisis in the world caused by scarcity of the clean water and most importantly by inadequate access to clean water sources. A long time struggle towards fighting poverty and ensuring basic need for life only by means of official authorities proves that despite indisputable political and normative progress, states consistently fail in meeting demands of implementation. Therefore the author emphasizes the necessity of cooperative action of a private sector and public sector stemming into a participative solution.
Maja Meseldžija, Milica Dudić and Sonja Stipanović
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Zoran S. Ilić, Elazar Fallik, Maja Manojlović, Žarko Kevrešan and Jasna Mastilović
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