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Vladimír Naxera and Petr Krčál

the historically first direct election in 2013. Equipped with a strong legitimacy stemming from the nation-wide popular vote, Zeman began to serve his function in office in a way that further polarized Czech society. Zeman actively intervened in political processes in a manner that did not correspond to a parliamentary regime or constitutionally determined powers ( Brunclík and Kubát 2016 ), thus destabilizing the Czech political scene. Furthermore, immediately after his election, he became highly active in the media and granted interviews to daily tabloid

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Tomasz Kamusella

used it for writing Kipchak, Slavic, or Turkish until the turn of the 20 th century. The Slavic Orthodox alphabet of Cyrillic – that stems from the Slavonic translation of the Bible – was adopted for writing Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, or Ukrainian. The spread of the use of holy scripts for writing other than holy languages (vernaculars) is connected to empires or diasporas. The initial spread of the Latin script took place across the Roman Empire, then Charlemagne’s Frankish Empire took over this role, and subsequently the Holy Roman Empire, before

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Michaela Strapáčová and Vít Hloušek

( Fennema 1997 ; Brug and Fennema 2003 ). Moreover, most of the mainstream Czech parties and other important political actors, such as President of the Czech Republic Miloš Zeman, are more or less fiercely using the antimigrant card as well. In the same vein as in a case of “anti-Semitism without Jews” ( Lendvai 1971 ), the majority of the Czech politicians opted apparently for populist rhetoric instead of an analysis of real challenges, risks, as well as the moral and international obligations stemming from the Czech Republic’s membership in the EU. The Czech case can

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Vilém Řehák

very little actual change in the U.S. approach to Africa” ( Lawson 2007 , 9). Africa has remained marginal, and the US did not have a clear Africa policy ( Agyeman-Duah 2015 , 34). Expectations and Results of the Obama Presidency This brief summary shows that close partnership stemmed from shared security interests and was reflected in high levels of US aid to Kenya. On the other side, the US was much less important partner in investment and trade. Moreover, President Mwai Kibaki focused his economic diplomacy on China and other Asian countries under the so

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Samir Hajj

the Arab College as a pilot college stems from their vision, expressed in the poem of Rudyard Kipling “White Man’s Burden”, that the white European man has an important mission in the dissemination of culture and education to other races. Curriculum and Methods of Teaching in the Arab College A survey of the teaching program at the Arab college shows the context that influenced teaching as well as what was taught and how it was taught. The Arab College was initially an institute for teachers training; therefore, special attention was given to the subject of

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Jiří Gazda

and repeated judgmental stereotypes. This stems from the fact that the Czech comments made on the original Russia-related writings often turn into discussions, arguments, and “conflicts” between the debaters. Any black-and-white opinions on the issues on both sides are often challenged, and discussions frequently turn from the presented issue to internal political problems and ideological divides, while Russia and Czech–Russian relationships are sidelined. This seems to show that the participants in these discussions are consciously or unconsciously aware that the

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György Tóth

as a way of shoring up transatlantic relations between the two peoples and their governments (Körtvélyesi 2011 ) . Besides being good political communication, this latter view may have been genuine, stemming from their convictions that both Reagan and Lantos were figures who united parties across ideological divides and the Atlantic Ocean. On the part of Democrats, this may have also echoed incumbent President Obama’s early rhetoric of bipartisanship. For their part, the Hungarian diplomatic corps and government promoted this latter interpretation of the role of