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Oladipupo R. Akolade, Alaribe S. Chinwe, Balogun T. Olalekan, Akere T. Halima, Ayanda A. Fatima, Toye T. Emuejevoke and Coke A.B. Herbert

Abstract

Phytochemical constituents of plants extracts have been well investigated as leads for drug discovery and development. However, aside their immense medicinal properties, their safety is also of paramount importance, therefore evaluating the toxicity of plants extracts and their phytochemicals is an important aspect of quality measures to meet the requirements for consumption.This study was done to identify the volatile phytochemical compounds present in n-hexane extract of Uvaria chamae stems (UCSH) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate the effects of this non-polar extract on DNA using diphenylamine (DPA) and agarose gel electrophoresis assays, also to investigate the haematological parameters using an auto Haematology Analyzer.The GC-MS analysis of UCSH identified some compounds which include; squalene, lupeol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and Benzyl benzoate with excellent medicinal properties. Genotoxicity assays results showed significant reductions in DNA fragmentation in liver and testis cells of mice as against the DNA biomarker and vehicle control group. Haematological results showed significant increase in white blood cells (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), platelets (PLT) and lymphocytes (LYMP) but significant reduction in mean corpuscular - volume (MCV), haemoglobin (MCH), and haemoglobin concentration (MCHC).The present study showed that the phytochemicals present in the n-Hexane extract of Uvaria chamae stems may play protective role in the genomic DNA of liver and testis tissues and also may induce hematological changes which may enhance the immune system.

Open access

Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

Abstract

This paper reports the results of observations of the abundance of population Succisa pratensis Moench, as well as temporal and spatial variabilities of chosen traits such as the number of rosettes, number of leaves per rosette, number and height of flowering stems, number of flower heads per generative stem and number of seeds per fruit. Investigations were conducted in the years 2009−2013, in six patches of Molinietum caeruleae with different dominant species, unmanaged from 10 to 22 years. On the basis of studies performed, the state of populations and chances for maintenance in the colonised site were evaluated.

Open access

Anthony M. Ugbenyen, John J. Simonis and Albertus K. Basson

affects a subset of neurons in rabbit cerebral cortex, basal forebrain and upper brain stem. Neurosci ., 29 , 329-337. Kurane, R., Takeda, K., and Suzuki, T., 1986. Screening for characteristics of microbial flocculants. Agric. Biol. Chem ., 50 , 2301–2307. Lam, K.S., 2006. Discovery of novel metabolites from marine actinomycetes. Ind. Microbiol ., 9 , 245-251. Lu, W.Y., Zhang, T., Zhang, D.Y., Li, C.H., Wen, J.P., and Du, L.X., 2005. A novel bioflocculantproduced by Enterobacteraerogenes and its use in defecating the trona suspension. Biochem

Open access

Anthony M. Ugbenyen, Thandakile A. Madonsela, John J. Simonis and Albertus K. Basson

, N.W., Pendleury, W.W. and Kessler, J.B., 1989. Aluminium-induced neurofibrillary degeneration affects a subset of neurons in rabbit cerebral cortex, basal forebrain and upper brain stem. Neurosci., 29 , 329-337. Kurane, R. and Nohata, Y., 1991. Microbial flocculation of waste liquids and oil emulsion by a bioflocculant from Alcaligenes latus . Agric. Biol. Chem., 55 , 1127-1129. Kurane, R., Toeda, K., Takeda, K. and Suzuki, T., 1986. Culture condition for production of microbial flocculant by Rhodococcus erythropolis . Agric Biol Chem., 50

Open access

Temitope O. Olomola, Tawakalit O. Kelani, Mojisola C. Cyril-Olutayo and Joseph M. Agbedahunsi

, M., 2015. Pharmacological activities and phytochemistry of various plant containing coumarin derivatives. Curr. Sci. Perspect ., 1 (3), 77-90. Bernaudin, F., Socie, G., Kuentz, M., Chevret, S., Duval, M. Bertrand, Y., Vannier, J.-P., Yakouben, K., Thuret, I., Bordigoni, P., Fischer, A., Lutz, P., Stephan, J.-L., Dhedin, N., Plouvier, E., Margueritte, G., Bories, D., Verlhac, S., Esperou, H., Coic, L., Vernant, J.-P. and Gluckman, E., 2007. Long-term results of related myeloablative stem-cell transplantation to cure sickle cell disease. Blood , 110 (7

Open access

Aliyu Muhammad, Aliyu Dahiru Waziri, Gilead Ebiegberi Forcados, Babangida Sanusi, Hadiza Sani, Ibrahim Malami, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Musa Fatima Abbah, Ali Tony Nelson, Bashir Musa and Hafsat Abdullahi Mohammed

.C., Antalek, M.D., Seamon, C., Conrey, A.K., Mendelsohn, L., Nichols, J., Gorbach, A.M., Kato, G.J., Ackerman, H., 2014. Microvascular oxygen consumption during sickle cell pain crisis. Blood 123, 3101–4. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-11-533406 Sani, H.L., Malami, I., Hassan, S.W., Alhassan, A.M., Halilu, M.E., Muhammad, A., 2015. Effects of standardized stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. In wistar rats with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazineinduced haemolytic anaemia. Pharmacogn. J. 7. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2015.2.2 Sedrak, A., Kondamudi, N.P., 2018

Open access

Alireza Pourmohammad, Fariborz Shekari and Veeda Soltaniband

Abstract

An experiment was concluded to evaluate the effects of priming on germination characteristics and establishment of rapeseed seedlings during three stages. In the first and second stages of experiment, the effects at three factors vis: cultivars (RVS, Hayola), waterdeficit stress (Control,-6 and -12 bar) and cycocel treatment (dry seeds, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 μM) on germination and seedling growth of plant were assayed. The results showed that priming had positive effects on germination percentage, germination rate index, germination index, and radicle length under water-deficit conditions. RVS had greater efficiency than other cultivars. The third section of experiment revealed that the priming of RVS seeds improved the stem, root and dry weight, total dry weight as well as leaf number and area of seedlings.

Open access

Radu Lacatusu, Anca-Rovena Lacatusu, Mihaela Lungu, Mihaela Monica Stanciu Burileanu and Andrei Vrînceanu

Abstract

The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1), i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

Open access

Jaroslav Boháč and Karel Matějka

Abstract

Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.

Open access

Tamás Antal, László Sikolya and Benedek Kerekes

-3584. [16] Tregunno, N. B., Goff, H. D.: Osmodehydrofreezing of apples: Structural and textural effects. Food Research International, 29 (1996), 471-479. [17] Wang, Y., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S., Mothibe, K. J.: Experimental investigation and mechanism analysis on microwave freeze drying of stem lettuce cubes in a circular conduit. Drying Technology, 30 (2012), 1377-1386.