not come into being only spontaneously, but that they can also be created through government policies.
The theory behind the Industrial Cluster Plan stems from Porter (1990 , 1998 ); some Japanese economists also advocate his thinking and provide the METI with theoretical support for the Plan. But they fail to notice a weak point of Porter’s theory and have neglected some important aspects of regional economies in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to reexamine the policy and theoretical thinking of the Industrial Cluster Plan by shedding light on some of its
critically refer to a "new coastal squeeze" characterised by a shift in policy attention away from the coastline due to the emergence of marine governance as a distinct policy field. Integrated Coastal Zone Management has been seen by many government authorities in northern Europe as a development stemming from science and non-statutory pilot projects. However, Marine Spatial Planning in the European Union developed as a tool to support 'blue growth' on one hand and as a statutory tool to sort out spatial conflicts on the other hand. Marine Spatial Planning in German
, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1995): Die internationalen Leitlinien für das Weltnetz der Biosphärenreservate. http://www.unesco.de/infothek/dokumente/konferenzbeschluesse/br-leitlinien.html (04.07.2016).
UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 1995 Die internationalen Leitlinien für das Weltnetz der Biosphärenreservate http://www.unesco.de/infothek/dokumente/konferenzbeschluesse/br-leitlinien.html (04.07.2016)
Vidal-Gonzalez, P.; Valverde, A. C. (2014): Stemming the Tide. Opposition and Conflict in the Creation of
and the sharing of costs as the budget of the region stems from allocations paid by municipalities. Therefore, the region is occasionally called a social region ( Arndt/Priebs 2005 : 22).
Although the “Hanover Reform” was oriented towards enhanced effectiveness and cost saving in public service provision, the example also shows some elements of horizontal governance, e.g. decentralized networks between public and private actors, for example “hannoverimpuls”, a company with limited responsibility for economic development.
Similar to Stuttgart, in Hanover further
in the areas of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources. The financial support it provides can cover 35 % of eligible costs (ranging from 5 to 15 million euros). The funding is accompanied by the implementation of network mechanisms with the explicit policy aim of supporting and extending the environmental, social and economic benefits stemming from local initiatives. Nantes, Grenoble and Lyon are among the 28 communities taking part. Swept up by the European momentum, they have included dynamic policies for sustainable development in their urban
in which communication connects to communication, the failure of connecting communications to materialise leads to the autopoietic communication interactions coming to a standstill and so to the end of the social system. The threat can stem from a destructive force from the environment of the social system (psychic-biological or technical-material destruction) or the social system can demonstrate internal susceptibilities that emerge from the structures that have been operatively formed in the system (expectations of expectations).
interesting in the light of these two-level regulations. According to our assumption, local actors maintained the ability to shape reality on a bottom-up basis, in their own local context. This hypothesis stems from the belief that local conditions are important ( Sagan 2000 ; Zarycki 2002 ). We decided to analyse the importance of the tradition of cooperation for the reaction to the adaptive pressure from above, examining the relationship between Integrated Territorial Investment and the pre-existing forms of metropolitan cooperation. We assume that the range of possible
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Š erá B. 2012. Which stem parts of Slender speedwell