The two-part article Time in Film (Part I Cinematograph and Modernity . Part II Trans- formation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author's comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film's narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the specta-tor), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
The essential subject of Part I (Cinematograph and Modernity') of the article presented in this volume is the mysterious character of the film recording of time which stems from the dialectics of continuity and discontinuity. The discourse begins by recalling two classic theories defining film as a temporal art: Roman Ingarden's phenomenological theory and Jan Mukarovsky's semiotic theory. Both the theories define the layered character of a film work and its temporal span, which makes the theories similar. For Ingarden, how- ever the time of a film work is first of all associated with the temporality of the perceiving subject, while Mukarovsky argues that the most significant aspect of film tune is one connected with the temporal span of the work as a sign. The two approaches stem from two different conceptions and cognitive possibilities, with which we also deal in the case of reception of a film: the possibility of direct inspection or symbolic (sign) representation.
The article then discusses the ‘ linking’' between the creation of film visibility, motion and time, as well as the mam paradox of the film recording of time. i.e. the phenomenon of creating an illusion of continuity of motion (and time) with the use of motionless pictures (movie camera and projection apparaftis). This paradox is referred, inter alia, to the philosophical conceptions advanced by Henri Bergson, who developed his own reflection on the continuity of time, motion, and specificity of human perception. Bergson's criti- cism of modern concepts of time as linear and divisible, which originated from empirical and rational tendencies of the epoch, found its reference in the possibilities provided by the mechanism of action of the cinematograph right after it was invented.
The paper then discusses expectations linked with the possibilities observ ed in the mechanical way of recording reality’ and time in the early silent cinema films (the so-called cinema of attraction). In their case, the duality of film time stemmed from the paradoxical properties provided by cinematographic reproduction and its impact on the spectator. On the one hand, it manifested a tendency to standardize and systematize phenomena and time, while on the other hand, the sphere of indeterminacy or even unawareness made itself felt. This part of die article is based on studies by Mary Ann Doane, who refers inter alia to the conceptions of Walter Benjamin. Sigmund Freud, and to Étienne-Jules Mareys photography experiments. According to M. A. Doane. the early cinema (Edison, Lumiere brothers, and Melies) was characterized by two opposing tendencies: a characteristic tendency of modernity' to record and organize the flow of present time (standardization) and at the same time a fascination with unpredictable phenomena (novelty). It was only at the next stage of cinema that temporal unpredictability- was adjusted by means of narrative patterns, which made it possible to include the viewer’s attention in the time of the plot being told.
Orangery structures were built in the whole Polish Commonwealth already from the 18th century. These structures were constructed both in large complexes of landed estates owned by aristocracy and in smaller manor-house/park complexes owned by the gentry. The popularity of these glasshouses (greenhouses) stemmed from their utilitarian functions and from the fashion for exotic plants which were often used and placed in the open as decoration for the gardens surrounding palaces and manors. Greenhouse buildings were divided into cool greenhouses, so-called orangeries, and heated greenhouses, called hothouses. The former type, often called orangeries, prevailed in the Lublin province. The models of ready-made orangery structures could be found in various guides. In the 19th and early 20th centuries the publications by Edmund Jankowski and Józef Strumiłło were highly popular. The books presented the basic principles of developing greenhouse buildings and adapting the already existing old orangeries, and described plant species suitable for different types of hothouses and cool greenhouses, taking their requirements and ways of growing into account. The article presents the basic assumptions of constructing these types of buildings. The author characterizes the still extant orangeries in the Lublin province as compared with the available design patterns. Apart from orangeries, the study also presents winter gardens accompanying palaces and manors, which functionally complemented the residences. The article also discusses the rules of designing these types of interiors and the basic plant species used in those facilities.
The theme of death in contemporary Polish documentary cinema is increasingly present, which is distinctly evidenced by the creative works of Marcin Koszałka, who debunks one more social taboo. The author of the paper is interested in the intimate presentation of death, which, on the one hand, has a provocative dimension, and, on the other, it stems from the personal need to confess, which is carried out by the film alter egos of Koszałka, for example by his sister in Ucieknijmy od niej [Let’s run away from her] or by Piotr Korczak in Deklaracja nieśmiertelności [Declaration of Independence]. The films made by Koszałka - the author of Istnienie [The Existence] are based on baroque concepts which, by shocking the audience with their form, are meant to ask fundamental existential questions. Koszałka’s creative output is viewed by scholars first of all from the standpoint of self-treatment, which seems insuficient: when analyzing Koszałka’s films, it is impossible to avoid an ethical or existentialist perspective Another interesting and separate example of intimate presentation of the death theme is the film by Adam Sikora Paweł [Paul], which presents the Mikołów Institute director suffering from cancer: the camera accompanies Paweł Targiel’s “confession”, which reveals the stream of consciousness of the departing man. These extremely different presentations: baroque pieces by Koszałka and ascetic ones by Sikora essentially ask the same questions about the limits of documentary cinema.
 Gazdag F., Remek É.: A biztonsági tanulmányok alapjai. Dialóg Campus Kiadó, Budapest, 2018.
 Decision No.1202 OSCE Confidence-building measures toreduce the risks of conflict stemming from the use of information and communication technologies https://www.osce.org/pc/227281?download=true (accessed on: 2019. febr. 27.).
 V4 connects, Hungarian presidency 2017/2018 of the Visegrad Group http://v4.gov.hu/a-visegradi-egyuttmukodesrol (accessed on: 2019. febr. 27.).
 Rajnai Z., Fregán B.: Új alapokon a
do not necessarily accurately reflect public interests and participants do not necessarily play influential roles’. The basic dilemma stems from the perpetual tension between the need for effective governance and the need for maximum accountability. While the former invokes centralist tendencies in government, the latter demands greater decentralization. Fundamentally, as we shall see in the present research, the degree of participation open to citizens varies with local context.
As E. Conrad et al. (2011 : 761) have noted ‘whilst public participation is now
During technical education it is a very difficult yet essential task to develop the good logical engineering thinking of students or pupils. One main part of this thinking is the determination of the optimal set of required input parameters for the calculation task mentioned above. The LogTreeMM (Logical Tree of Mathematical Modelling) method can help to solve this task. The aim of this paper is to show modification of the LogTreeMM method to determine the required parameters of a mathematical model by a simple case study.
Olena Hrechyshkina CDFMR and Maryia Samakhavets CDFMR
merchandise exports in the international business environment is hindered by a number of limiting factors, which stem from the low level of product diversification (commodity-dependent exports have been identified) and geographical diversification (the Russian Federation remains the dominant foreign trade partner, although its share is decreasing). Therefore, we consider it advisable to intensify government support for export-oriented enterprises to expand their export geography, increase the attractiveness of sales conditions, grow sales, accelerate product turnover