The study presents some authors’ experimental results for determination of some quality indicators (few general, specific and toxic physical-chemical indicators) analyzed at the beginning of summer season (June, 2013), in three control sections of Siret River in Pascani town area (i.e. Lunca-Pascani entrance, 1 km-upstream, and 1 km-downstream of Pascani bridge, respectively). The real pollution status of Siret River in Pascani town area is also estimated by the global pollution index (I* GP), and corresponds to values between 3.215-3.891 indicating ‘an aquatic environment modified by domestic and economic activities alongside the river with generation of stress effect against life forms’.
This research conducted with the fully fresh, ripe and sound tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was collected then washed, peeled, seeds removed and transferred to the juice extractor. Sugar, preservatives were added to the extracted filtrated juice. Then the juice was heated, cooled and bottled for preservation. Tomato juice was prepared with three different treatments. Among the three treatments T1, T2 and T3 sample were prepared with no preservative, Na-benzoate preservative and potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) preservative respectively. The organoleptic observation of this tomato juice was studied for 60 days storage period. Chemical analysis and sensory tests were carried out during the 30 days at an interval of 15 days to assess the effect of chemical additives on the shelf life of tomato juice. Negligible Change in chemical constituents except vitamin C was observed in the prepared juice throughout the 30 days storage period. Color was gradually faded and slightly off flavor develops at the end of the storage periods. The treatment T2 secured highest score for color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability and ranked as “Like very much” by a taste testing panel. Tomato juice prepared with no preservative (T1) spoiled after 45 days storage and juice prepared with KMS preservative (T3) spoiled after 60 days storage. Total number of viable bacteria was highest in tomato juice treated with no preservative (T1) and KMS preservative (T3). Tomato juice with Na-benzoate preservative (T2) contained least viable bacteria which was better than T1 and T3 sample. Considering all the parameters, Na-benzoate tends to be better additives than potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) for preservation of tomato juice.
This study aimed to demonstrate efficiency of documented index method “universal water quality index-UWQI” to evaluate surface water quality and investigate seasonal and temporal changes, in the case of Gediz River Basin Turkey. UWQI expressed results relative to levels according to criteria specified in European legislation (75-440 EEC). The method produced a unitless number ranging from 1 to 100 and a higher number was indicator of better water quality. Water quality is classified into five classes and index scores between 95-100 represent excellent and lower than 24 represent poor quality. In the study, dissolved oxygen-DO, pH, mercury-Hg, cadmium-Cd, total phosphorus-TP, biochemical oxygen demand- BOD and nitrate nitrogen-NO3-N have been chosen as index determinants. Samples analyzed for these variables were collected from five stations on monthly basis along two years. Based on UWQI classification scheme, water quality at sampling stations had scores below 40 and assigned to “marginal” which is between fair and poor quality class. On the other hand sub-indices of water quality determinants showed seasonal differences for some parameters. Cd concentrations were higher in “high flow” and lower values were observed in “low flow” periods. This was explained by negative impact of urban runoff on water quality. On the other hand DO concentrations were higher in “high flow” period. Under “low flow” conditions water quality at upstream stations (where the industrial density is low) was comparably better than downstream part. The study showed that index approach can be efficient tool to: a) evaluate water quality, b) investigate spatial and seasonal variations and finally, c) extract required information from complex data sets that is understandable by non-technical people.
Oluwande O. Adewoyin, Samuel O. Oluwadare and Comfort O. Daramola
The use of behavioural change systems in providing interventions for people is common in this present era of information technology. Many people depend on these systems for many reasons like safe driving, healthy food consumption, energy conservation, etc. Some of these systems have been successful in making people change positively while a larger percentage have not been successful due to many issues that were not addressed during the development of such systems. One of them is psychological reactance, a motivational state that is aroused when a person’s freedom is threatened or eliminated. It has major focus restoring any freedom that has been threatened. This forms the motivation for this work and it starts with a brief study of the theory of psychological reactance with a new view of accessing it from perceived usability perspective. To study reactance in people, a survey was conducted. It focussed on accessing reactance through attitudes to forced compliance in a persuasive website in the context of meal-planning. Results from this study showed that participants with high freedom text had better attitude to the website in terms of anger and perceived usability than participants with low-freedom text. This work confirmed the social agency proposition that the presence of social cues in a multimedia message can stimulate the social interaction pattern in people’s learning. Once this social interaction pattern is initiated, there is a high possibility for pupils to act as if they are interacting with another individual. Therefore, to some degree, social convention of human-to-human interaction sets in as participants with high freedom message had a lower anger score than participants with high freedom plus social message.
Omodele Ibraheem, Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki, Jesupemi Mercy Enibukun, Bolanle Christianah Faleye and Daniel Uwaremhevho Momodu
, Galloway TS, Yamashita R, Ochi D, Watanuki Y, Moore C, Viet PH, Tana TS, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Zakaria MP, Akkhavong K, Ogata Y, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Mizukawa K, Hagino Y, Imamura A, Saha M, Takada H (2009) Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 364: 2027-2045.
Trott O, Olson AJ (2010) AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization, and multithreading. J. Comput. Chem. 31(2): 455-461.
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Zhang Y, Skolnick J (2005) TM-align: a protein structure alignment algorithm based on the TM-score. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 33: 2302-9.
Zhao JP, Zhang Q, Jiao HC, Wang XJ, Jiang MJ, Luo H, Lin H (2016) Ovalbumin expression in the oviduct magnum of hens is related to the rate of egg laying and shows distinct stress-type specific responses. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 100: 876-883.
Kamila Rawojć, Dorota M. Tarnawska, Justyna U. Miszczyk, Jan Swakoń, Liliana Stolarczyk and Marzena Rydygier
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Jan Dick, Amani Al-Assaf, Chris Andrews, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado, Elli Groner, Ľuboš Halada, Zita Izakovičová, Miklós Kertész, Fares Khoury, Dušanka Krasić, Kinga Krauze, Giorgio Matteucci, Viesturs Melecis, Michael Mirtl, Daniel E. Orenstein, Elena Preda, Margarida Santos-Reis, Rognvald I. Smith, Angheluta Vadineanu, Sanja Veselić and Petteri Vihervaara
The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i) describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii) test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER) sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net) including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%). Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i) this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii) this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii) further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.
Tomáš Bohdal, Josef Navrátil and František Sedláček
Riparian stands along streams are important landscape elements – biocorridors, allowing the dispersal of many small terrestrial mammals. Streams are, however, also barriers limiting dispersal, which leads to isolation and population-genetic changes. Communities of small terrestrial mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia) were studied in 2004 to 2006 on five watercourses of varying widths in Central European cultural landscape situated in South Bohemia (Czech Republic). In total, 547 individuals from 10 species were captured by the Capture-Mark-Recapture method (CMR). Yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) were eu-dominant species at all locations. Species diversity and equitability rose with the degree of the barrier – proportional to the width of the stream.
The terrestrial mobility of selected species was also assessed. Apodemus flavicollis indicated overall highest values of mobility, and Myodes glareolus males also scored higher values, however, the width of the stream did not correlate with mobility in these species. The animals crossed water-courses on the order of tens of meters wide in the period of 3 months. The frequency of crossing of Apodemus flavicollis decreased exponentially with the width of the stream and was dependent on population density.
The presence of water is one of the decisive factors of landscape’s natural potential. Water affects landscape’s predisposition for agricultural production, water supply available to the wide population and industry (the most important is the yield of water resources). Ponds, lakes and other water areas are zones of recreation and relaxation. Near sources mineral water, several world-famous spas were build. Waterways are also used to generate electricity. Geothermal underground water represents a very significant landscape potential. Determining hydrological potential of the area is important for the regional development. This paper assesses the landscape potential for water management regarding its surface waters in the micro-region Minčol. The micro-region was divided by a square grid, and for each square, we determined the appropriateness of this potential based on score points. The determining evaluation criteria were static reserves of surface water, waterway ranking and annual average discharge. First, we determined the significance (value) of individual criteria (classification characteristics), and then we calculated the values of individual classifiers, which were then multiplied by the value of the individual classifier intervals. The summary of points in each square belongs to a particular degree of suitability for water management based on surface waters. The potential was divided into five degrees (intervals): very unfavourable potential, unfavourable potential, moderately favourable potential, favourable potential and very favourable potential.