Éva Brantmüller, Mónika Gyúró, Kitti Galgán and Annamária Pakai
Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for six months, but, at least, three years. The participants completed the self-administered, modular questionnaire and the standard EPDS questionnaire anonymously. 35% of mothers of twins reached or exceeded the threshold value for depression following the first six months after delivery. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of the suspected cases among the primipara and multipara (p=1.000). At the same time, artificial conception proved to be a significant risk factor (p= 0.019). Distraught family life (p=0.001) and unfavorable changes in a domestic partnership (p=0.009) increased the prevalence of the suspected cases of depression significantly. The health visitor is the only person who knows the hierarchy of families with their weaknesses and strengths in the Hungarian primary health care; therefore, her role is unquestionable in the recognition of maternal mood disorders. The health visitor compares the scores of the EPDS questionnaire with the experiences during family visits, and with all of these facts, she refers the person in need to a specialist.
Annamária Pakai, András Oláh, Gabriella Farkasné-Buzánczky, Mónika Sélleyné-Gyúró and Éva Brantmüller
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and a leading cause of mortality among women both in developed and developing countries all over the world. Our research questions were the following: 1. What is the ratio of women participating in mammography screening? 2. What factors influence the attendance of the screening? A quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive study (2013) examined women aged 35-65 without a history of breast cancer from Kecskemét City and its region. Non-random, convenience sampling method was applied in the study. The self-edited and self-administered questionnaire included the following groups of questions: socio-demographic data, attitude examination related to screening, reasons for absence. Besides SPSS Statistics, 20.00 test, x2 test, t-test, and ANOVA were used (p<0.05). During the Principal Component Analysis, 23 variables of the motivational scale were grouped into six theoretical subgroups, and the Cronbach-alpha value was 0.758. The mean age of the participants was 49.96±8.91 years.71% of the interviewees never attended breast cancer screening. Regarding the sample, the mean age of women participating in the screening for the first time was 39.66±12.21 years. Women with college/university degree attained high scores on the knowledge test (p<0.05). A significant part of women went to the screening because they feel responsibility for their health status or due to the family history of breast cancer. Fear, shame, or inconveniencies during examination did not affect participation in screening. Prevention programs play a significant role in the improvement of the health status of the Hungarian population. Mortality and morbidity indicators can be reduced by regularly organized, preventive activities based on appropriate knowledge. Thus, the number of healthy years can be increased.
The results obtained in our research of mental distress indicators and results of conflict management strategies are consistent with the results of international studies. Students participating in the study (N=237) reached the highest average results in the field of personal growth, while we measured the lowest value in the fields of autonomy and the dominance of the enviroment. Among the mental distress indicators the students gave the highest scores for the stress. The frequency examination showed the results of the participants to fall to 40.9% of moderate-severe and severe extreme range. While among the genders, women indicate much higher stress levels. In addition, the students preferred the avoiding conflict management strategy in preference to the other four strategies. While we compared the students from the two countries we found a significant difference between the survey field of autonomy and purpose in life. We also found a notable difference among the mental distress indicators. While the students of the University of Debrecen were moderate, the students of the universities of Oradea fell in the “slight” area (in the range of stress). For the usage of conflict management strategies we found no significant differences between the two countries' students. The students from both countries preferred the avoiding strategy. This study similiar to many national and international studies indicates the high level of stress among the students. One of the most important task of a higher education institution should be the protection of the students’ mental health which would lead to an improvement on well-being and that would cause the lowering of the stress level.
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