) to screen for depressive symptoms and to estimate the prevalence of depression in this particular population group. Patients with scores of 0–5 are considered normal; a score of 6–10 indicates moderate depression; and 11–15 indicates severe depression ( Fountoulakis et al., 1999 , Yesavage et al., 1982 ).
In order to quantify the presence of sleep disturbances, the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8 items) was administered to all the participants. Each item of the scale is rated 0–3 (0: no problem and 3: serious problem). Scores ≥ 6 indicate diagnosis of insomnia
) as a measure of the current mental health status that has been widely used in different cultures and different settings ( Montazeri et al., 2003 ) . It was translated and adapted in Bengali ( Ilyas, 2002 ). A high General Health Questionnaire-12 score indicated reporting of more symptoms, that is, lower mental health.
The COPE scale (originally developed by Carver, Scherier and Weintrauh, 1989 ) adapted by Rahman and Islam (2011) . The COPE scale is theoretically based 60 items on self-report measures. Here participants are instructed to report what they
Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Naznin Alam, Shuhana Sultana, Mahbub-Ul Alam and Rushdiá Ahmed
depressive symptoms ( Andresen et al., 2013 ; Radloff, 1977 ). Participants with a total score of ≥ 10 on CES-D-10 were classified as showing depressive symptoms, and those with scores < 10 were classified as non-depressive ( Radloff, 1977 ). The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as a measure of the extent to which the Bangla K6 scores predicted depressive symptoms using the dichotomized CES-D-10. The AUC is used as a measure of test accuracy, and it shows how well a test can distinguish between two diagnostic groups (positive/negative). An AUC of 0.50 suggests
Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
ensue ( Dyrbye et al., 2011 , 2008). In their longitudinal investigation ( Rosal et al., 1997 ), Rosal and Ockene revealed that the rise in depression scores among American medical students persists over time and is chronic and persistent rather than episodic. These future healthcare providers may succumb to increased psychological distress, which can lead to a decline in empathy and resilience and poor doctor-patient relationships ( Hojat et al., 2002 ; Howe et al., 2012 ; Thomas et al., 2007 ). Moreover, continuous exposure to human suffering and tragic events
an almost universal phenomenon within the sample ( Szabo & Hollands, 1997b ). More specifically it was perception of weight rather than actual weight which predicted higher EAT-26 scores. Moreover, the existence of a history of dieting was extensive. Specific behaviours such as weighing as well as topics of conversation e.g. about food and dieting predicted higher EAT-26 scores and were thus highlighted as possible indicators of risk. The role of mothers in terms of their eating behaviour as well as their perceptions of daughter’s behaviour was also highlighted
results they provide. The 4 studies using guarana interventions with multivitamins were also thought to have a potential risk of bias, but in a lesser degree. Regarding multivitamin supplements and cognitive performance ( Grima NA et al., 2012 ) reported at their systematic review and meta-analysis, that multivitamin supplements were found to enhance immediate free recall memory but no other cognitive domains. The application of the Cochrane tool revealed that only 4 out of the 7 randomized controlled trials had a ‘low risk of bias’ score for at least 4 out of the 7
Functioning score improved from 32 to 47, while the number of antipsychotic medications and total psychotropic medications were significantly reduced from 3.5 to 1.1 and 6.8 to 2.6, respectively ( Suzuki T et al., 2004 ). Thus, the CP service in our study improved the quality of antipsychotic prescribing in patients treated with APP.
The CP’s service also affected the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. In a comprehensive Finnish nationwide cohort study, the risk of psychiatric rehospitalization was used as a marker for relapse among 62,250 patients with
S.M. Yasir Arafat, M A Al Mamun and Md. Saleh Uddin
were assessed and found satisfactory at the time of validation of the instrument ( Arafat et al. 2017 ). The instrument contains 20 questions about depression with three response options (yes, no, don’t know) for each item. Single response from the three options of each item was indicated and recorded. Score ‘1’ was given for each correct answer. Wrong and don’t know answers were scored as ‘0’. Total scores were calculated by summing up the scores of 20 items. Thus, the scores of D-Lit Bangla ranged from 0–20.
Design and Processes: This descriptive cross
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
literature, we selected clinically relevant variables that provide a broad picture of impairments related to psychological problems and emotional experience in EDs and that may influence specific domains we studied, that is, executive control and FER.
The Italian versions of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE-17.0) ( Calugi et al., 2017 ) and of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0) ( Calugi et al., 2017 ), were used to generate DSM-5 ED diagnoses and to rule out (mean global score > 2.0) any possible EDs from HCs, respectively. Information on
dividing the study area into four and then identifying female drinkers from each of the areas who would roll out to other drinkers.
From the 100 questionnaires, 54 were screened as indicating some form of hazardous drinking because of scoring 8 points and above. The 54 questionnaires were further screened to identify characteristics of binge drinking by using questions 1, 2 and 3. 30 females were qualified as being alcohol binge drinkers based on the three indices of alcohol consumption; frequency, quantity and intensity of drinking, which matched questions 1, 2 and 3