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Introduction. Residual diuresis (RD) is an important predictor of mortality and cardiovascular (CV) deaths in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and contributes more to overall survival compared to PD clearance. In this study we investigated the correlation between RD and CV outcomes in PD patients.

Methods. A total of 190 PD patients from 13 dialysis centers, a national representation, were included in this analysis. Biomarkers of anemia, nutritional status [malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), subjective global assessment (SGA), serum albumin, anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI)], dialysis dose (Kt/V) and laboratory measurements were determined. RD was estimated using the volume of daily urine.

Results. There were 78(41.05 %) females and 112 (58.95 %) males; aged 57.35±14.41 years, on PD for 24.96±24.43 months. Fifty-six patients had diabetes type II (44 as primary kidney disease). The mean RD was 1170±673.6 ml (range 0-3000 mL). Statistically significant correlations between RD and BMI, hip circumference, time on PD, Kt/V, MIS, SGA, erythrocytes (E), Hemoglobin (Hb), PTH, and serum albumin were observed.

Conclusions. We demonstrated a significant correlation between RD and MIS score, SGA, anthropometry and albumin. Every effort should be invested to maintain RD for as long as possible to achieve optimal treatment results and to decrease CV mortality in PD population.

studies and pilot trials of PTX[ 14 - 16 ] suggested that pentoxifylline reduced plasma TNF- α and IL-6, ALT and AST levels but there is scarcity of data to observe improvement of NAFLD activity score (NAS) and fibrosis score in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to observe the effect of pentoxifylline on histological activity and fibrosis of Bangladeshi nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients. Materials and methods This study was conducted from August 2014 to December 2015 as an open label Randomized Control Trial (RCT). The

Liver Disease (MELD) is a validated chronic liver disease (CLD) severity scoring system that includes serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, and the international normalized ratio (INR). An increasing MELD score is associated with progression of hepatic dysfunction, severity and three-month mortality risk.[ 5 ] MELD is also used to prioritize patients on liver transplant waiting list. It is considered better than the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, in part, because of the inclusion of creatinine, which reflects the prognostic impact of renal function.[ 6 ] Evangelos et

dysfunction and increased risk of vascular malformation. [ 2 ] Since GI diseases are common in ESRD patients, multiple studies have been conducted to study the endoscopic findings in this population. Most common reason for endoscopic evaluation has been UGIB. [ 2 , 4 ] Several scoring systems have also been developed to classify patients with UGIB according to their outcome. One such scoring system is the Glasgow Blatchford bleeding Score (GBS), a well-established tool to stratify patients in dire need of intervention from UGIB on the basis of their history, physical

disease is the Framingham risk score (FRS). According to the National Institutes of Health, the patients having chronic kidney disease are considered as having a coronary heart disease risk equivalent, meaning that they are primarily patients with a 10-year risk for myocardial infarction or coronary death >20%, despite without known coronary heart disease. [ 8 ] Metabolic acidosis, a common condition and an important manifestation of the late stage of chronic kidney disease, leads to clinically significant consequences, including bone disease disorders, protein energy

Malnutrition Using Modified Subjective Global Assessmentdialysis Malnutrition Score in Patients on Hemodialysis. Indian J Pharm Sci 2011; 73: 38-45. 26. Nerbass FB, Morais JG, Santos RG, et al. Factors related to interdialytic weight gain in hemodialysis patients. J Bras Nefrol 2011; 33: 300-305. 27. de Mutsert R, Snijder MB, van der Sman-de Beer F, et al. Association between body mass index and mortality is similar in the hemodialysis population and the general population at high age and equal duration of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 967-974. 28. Tutal E, Sezer S

, lethargy, impaired intellectual ability, and so on in end-stage coma (with or without response to stimuli) and later death in severe cases. [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ] The neuropsychological peculiarity can be revealed by the use of psychometric tests, for instance, neuropsychological tests such as Halstead-Reitan (H-R) score and Child-Pugh score or other psychometric tests. [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] There is no gold standard test to diagnose HE due to the personal peculiarities of each case. That is why physicians mostly rely on their personal experiences, equipment availability, and


Introduction. This study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the heath-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Greek adult transplant recipients before and 2 years after successful renal transplantation (RT). The SF-36 survey score was used. Methods. Eighty-five Greek hemodialysis patients underwent RT at the Transplant Unit of Evangelismos General Hospital of Athens, including 44 men and 41 women (mean age 43.8 years; range 21-59 years). The scale scores of a Greek version of the SF-36 survey were compared between the transplant and the hemodialysis patients. We also examined the relationships of the scale scores with the patients′ age and the type of donor. Results. According to the SF-36 health survey, transplant recipients had better results for general health perception (p≤0.001), role-physical functioning (p≤0.01), role-emotional functioning (p≤0.01), and vitality (p≤ 0.01). In addition, the scale score of physical functioning, general health and vitality of the patients who were younger than 30 years at the time of transplantation were significantly higher than those of the patients who were older than 30 years, while the scores of bodily pain, general health, and physical functioning were significantly lower in cadaveric graft recipients compared with living-related recipients. Conclusions. The SF-36 health survey is a validated and comprehensive instrument for evaluating renal transplant patients′ HRQOL. Our data demonstrated an improvement in HRQOL in renal transplant patients 2 years after successful renal transplantation. The data also confirmed that the recipients′ age at transplantation and the type of donor were important factors affecting the HRQOL.


Introduction. The concept of alexithymia means dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relating. The study was performed to evaluate the alexithymia construct in patients treated with chronic maintenance haemodialysis.

Methods. TAS-20 was applied as a measure of alexithymia to a group of 230 patients, mean age 55.5±13.5 years, recruited from three dialysis centers.

Results. The results obtained showed that 50% of patients were alexithymic, and 18% had possible alexithy-mia. A small positive correlation was shown between age and obtained scores for alexithymia (r=0.025). Duration of dialysis also positively influenced the alexithymia scores (r=0.013). In addition, the duration of dialysis was significantly influenced by age (ANOVA 0.004, p<0.05). Factors analysis showed that F1 and F2 were not influenced by age or duration of dialysis. Only factor F3 (externally oriented thinking) was very perceptible and influenced by the age and the duration of dialysis (ANOVA p=0.016; <0.05).

No significant differences in scores between males and females were obtained. Only F1 was higher in males (p<0.05). The scores obtained for alexithymia were compared between healthy population and cancer and dialysis patients. Patients with chronic diseases were more alexithymic than healthy people (p< 0.05).

Conclusions. The alexithymia construct is a permanent personality trait related to neurobiological brain specifics. An alexithymia construct can influence the prognosis and outcome of dialysis patients as well as of other diseases. The psychological support for mediating alexithy-mia should be included in the therapeutic protocols, especially for end-stage renal diseases.


Researchers confirmed that depression and anxiety are two common comorbid disorders in chronic kidney patients. The aim of our study was to screen the level of depression and anxiety in a group of end-stage kidney diseases treated with hemodialysis. The evaluated sample comprised 230 participants; 110 females (mean age 55.5±13.5 years), and 120 males (mean age 54.5±14.3 years). The mean duration of maintenance dialysis was 8.3±5.8 years (from 0.5 to 24 years). Patients were selected randomly from three dialysis centers in R. Macedonia. As psychometric instruments Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and scores from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201) were used. Our study confirmed that majority of evaluated dialyzed patients are depressed and anxious in different level, but unfortunately the mental problems are frequently unrecognized. We suggested some response measures for management of these conditions in order to avoid risks for complications as well of suicide.