Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Katarzyna Boguszewska, Dominika Wrzosek, Natalia Mrozek, Marta Waloch and Dariusz Białoszewski
., Gedeborg R., Michaelson K., Byberg L. (2010) Prevention of Soccer-Related Knee Injuries in Teenaged Girls. Arch. Intern. Med., 170: 43-49.
26. Kiesel K., Plisky P., Butler R. (2011) Functional movement test scores improve following a standardized off- season intervention program in professional football players. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports , 21(2): 287-292.
27. Kiesel K.B., Butler R.J., Plisky P.J. (2014) Prediction of injury by limited and asymmetrical fundamental movement patterns in American football players. J. Sport Reh ., 23(2): 88-94.
Ricardo Lima, Ana Filipa Silva and Filipe Manuel Clemente
. Perform. Anal. Sport, 13: 367-379.
28. Silva M., Lacerda D., João P.V. (2014) Game-related volleyball skills that influence victory. J. Hum. Kinet., 41: 173-179. DOI: 10.2478/hukin-2014-0045.
29. Silva M., Marcelino R., Lacerda D., João P.V. (2016) Match Analysis in Volleyball : a systematic review. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport, 5: 35-46.
30. Stutzig N., Zimmermann B., Büsch D., Siebert T. (2017) Analysis of game variables to predict scoring and performance levels in elite men’s volleyball Analysis of game variables to predict scoring and
-Test. Retrieved from http://socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php .
34. Vealey R.S. (1986) Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. J. Sport Psychol., 8: 221-246.
35. Vealey R.S. (1988) Sport-confidence and competitive orientation: An addendum on scoring procedures and gender differences. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol., 10: 471-478.
36. Zulkifli A.F., Kulinna P. (2018) Self-efficacy, soccer skills and the influence on students’ learning experience. Biomed. Hum. Kinet., 10: 1-7.
Skip M. Williams, Dan Phelps, Kelly R. Laurson, David Q. Thomas and Dale D. Brown
Study aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if high school physical education seniors’ health-related fitness knowledge is related to their aerobic capacity and body composition.
Material and methods: The FitSmart test assessed students (n = 171) health-related fitness knowledge. Aerobic capacity was calculated based on the students PACER score. Body Composition was measured using the Tanita TBF 300A body composition analyzer.
Results: Aerobic fitness was a statistically significant predictor of exam score (β = 0.563, p < 0.001), but percent body fat was not (β = 0.185, p =0.074). Comparing the health-related fitness exam scores by the FITNESSGRAM classification system, students who were classified as Very Lean and High Risk for body composition had lower exam scores than those classified in the healthy fitness zone.
Conclusions: The results confirmed previous findings that students have inadequate health-related fitness knowledge. Furthermore, the study extends these findings by identifying some associations of percent body fat and estimated VO2max to health-related fitness knowledge.
Study aim: overtraining (OT) has a detrimental effect on sport performance, but it is not clear to what extent it influences physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between OT and physical fitness in football players.
Material and methods: a sample of semi-professional male football players (n = 124) performed a series of anthropometric and physical fitness measurements, and completed the 54-item OT questionnaire of the French Society of Sports Medicine.
Results: the OT score was significantly correlated with sit-and-reach test (SAR; rho = −0.20, p < 0.05), theoretical maximal velocity (v0; rho = −0.23, p < 0.05), theoretical maximal force (F0) of the force-velocity test (F-v test; rho = 0.25, p < 0.01) and mean power (Pmean) in W · kg−1 of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT; rho = −0.20, p < 0.05). The comparison between OT quartiles revealed that the first quartile scored higher than the third quartile in SAR and in v0 (p < 0.05). The fourth quartile scored higher in F0 than the first, second and third quartiles (p < 0.05). The magnitude of these differences among groups was medium.
Conclusions: the negative correlations between OT and physical fitness and the highest scores in fitness for the first OT quartile indicate a negative effect of OT on physical fitness (anaerobic capacity, maximal velocity and flexibility) of football players. In addition, because there is very limited prior relevant research on football players’ OT, our data can be used as reference for future research.
Zsolt Csirkés, Károly Bretz, Katalin Jakab and Rita F Földi
Study aim: To investigate the effects of 6-month sensorimotor training on postural control of 5-6-year-old preschool children born with ‘biological risk factors’ (BRF). Material and methods: Sixty-four Hungarian preschoolers participated in this study, and were assigned to an experimental group (n = 17), control group 1 (n = 23) and control group 2 (n = 24). The experimental group (born with BRF) attended a 6-month balance intervention based on Ayres’ therapy, while control group 1 (born with BRF) and control group 2 (born with no BRF) followed the regular preschool schedule. Birth weight, gestational age at birth, Apgar score and other abnormalities during pregnancy and birth were considered to be BRF. A moveable platform (stabilometer) was used to examine the distance of center of pressure movements of all participants prior to the start and after the end of the intervention. The testing procedure was performed with four enjoyable tests in the same sequence (‘Mouse in the hole’, ‘Center’, ‘Christmas tree’, ‘Square painting’). Results: The balance intervention program resulted in significant improvements in postural control of the experimental group. In three of six variables the balance index scores of the intervention group approached the scores of their peers born without BRF, and they even had better performance in three of six variables. Conclusions: Balance training with instability training devices could help children born with BRF attain a higher level of integration through the stimulation of tactile and balancing senses.
Study aim: To assess the effects of vertical, horizontal, and combination depth jump training programs on the performance
of the running long jump by male athletes.
Material and methods: A total of 80 physical education students ranging in age between 18-21 years with mean depth
jump performance of 44.3 ± 5.13 cm from a 45 cm high box were purposively selected to act as subjects. The subjects
were randomly assigned to vertical depth jump training (VD), horizontal depth jump training (HD), the combination
of both (CD), and a control group (CG). Each week, experimental groups performed 6 sets (10 repetitions per
set) twice a week for 10 weeks of depth jump training from a height of 20 cm, which progressed to 40 cm according
to the step method. Running long jump (RLJ) was measured before and after 10 weeks. Analysis of covariance, with
pre-test scores as a covariate, was applied to compare scores. A pairwise comparison was done by using the Scheffe’s post-hoc test.
Results: The average increase of RLJ performance in groups VD (0.17 m) and CD (0.23 m) was significantly different
(p<0.05) than in group CG (0.05 m). Improvement in group HD (0.12 m) was not significantly different than in
group CG; moreover, no significant difference existed between training groups.
Conclusions: A combination of both vertical and horizontal depth jumping is required for long jumpers, with a higher
proportion of vertical depth jumping.
Study aim: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether existing pre-performance routines had an effect on free throw shooting accuracy in high school pupils as compared to shooting without a pre-performance routine.
Materials and methods: Participants were 34 freshman high school basketball players. Twenty male (n = 20) and fourteen female (n = 14) of various ethnic backgrounds were randomly assigned to a condition and were asked to implement a pre-performance routine in one condition and a non-pre-performance routine in another condition for free throw shooting. A within subjects crossover design was used to analyse the data based on a pre-performance routine and a non-pre-performance routine framework. The pre-performance routine conditions were considered the experimental conditions. A Missed-Made Shots table was used to track performance (miss-made shots) for the shots in both conditions.
Results: There were differences between the experimental condition (pre-performance routine) and the comparison condition (non-pre-performance routine) Z(22) = –4.61, p < 0.01 with the experimental condition’s median scores out-performing the comparison condition scores; however the differences were very small.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that there were differences between the experimental condition (pre-performance routine) and the comparison condition (non-pre-performance routine). Results suggest that there may be additional relevant factors in addition to pre-performance routines that should be considered in helping youth develop closed motor skills (e.g., mental imagery, physical exertion, outside factors – audience).
Michael Hodges, Chong Lee, Kent A. Lorenz and Daniel Cipriani
Study aim: this study examined the item difficulty and item discrimination scores for the HRFK PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for 5th-grade students.
Materials and methods: ten elementary physical education teachers volunteered to participate. Based on convenience, participating teachers selected two 5th grade physical education classes. Teachers then gave students (N = 633) a 28-question paper and pencil HRFK exam using PE Metrics Standards 3 and 4. Item difficulty and discrimination analysis and Rasch Modeling were used data to determine underperforming items.
Results: analysis suggests that at least three items are problematic. The Rasch Model confirmed this result and identified similar items with high outfit mean square values and low Point Biserial correlation values.
Conclusions: teachers are in need of valid and reliable HRFK assessment tools. Without the removal of three items in the PE Metrics HRFK exam for 5th-grade students, complete use of the exam could offer incorrect conclusions.
Katarzyna Urban, Zofia Ignasiak, Krzysztof Wronecki and Anna Skrzek
Study aim: the aim of the study was to observe the dynamics of changes in postural symmetry in infants during the first year of life, undergoing a therapy using the NDT-Bobath method.
Material and methods: the study included a group of 60 term infants diagnosed with central coordination disorder. The course of psychomotor development in the children was compared with a control group of peers aged 3 and 12 months. Group I (study group) consisted of 40 infants who had been subjected to treatment using the NDT-Bobath method. Group II (control group) consisted of 20 infants who, by the decision of the parents, did not undergo the therapy. In group I, four studies were carried out at an interval of every 3 months ± 1 week. In group II, studies were carried out during the 3rd and 12th month.
Results: symmetry in body position patterns and movement patterns were analysed. Three levels of a child’s body were subject to the assessment of symmetry. In each study disparities in movement patterns of the left and right side were assessed. Individual features were expressed using scores, according to the principle of the higher the score, the more intense asymmetry.
Conclusions: 1. The observed changes in body postural asymmetry in infants during the first year of life are more favourable in the group of children undergoing rehabilitation. 2. The catch-up growth phenomenon among the infants from the control group proceeds more slowly and reaches beyond a child’s first year of life. This indicates the need to include appropriate methods of therapy.