Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Murat Onur Yazlık, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Merve Menekse Yildirim, Ahmet Bas and Şükrü Küplülü
metabolic processes during the transition period to produce good quality colostrum and subsequently milk ( 31 ). Most cows suffer from clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia during the first days of lactation, and total plasma calcium levels reach their physiological level 2 to 3 days after parturition ( 17 , 32 ). Clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively affects energy metabolism and the immune status of cows and a variable degree of Ca insufficiency impairs leukocyte activity ( 24 ).
The body condition score (BCS) is a useful and simple method to assess an
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3. Bernabucci, U., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N., Nardone, A., 2005: Influence of body condition score on relationships between metabolic status and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 88, 2017-2026.
4. Block, S. S., Butler, W. R., Ehrhardt, R. A., Bell, A. W., Van Amburgh, M. E., Boisclair, Y. R., 2001: Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance. J. Endocrinol., 171, 339-48.
5. Bradford, B. J
Barbara Stefańska, Agnieszka Poźniak and Włodzimierz Nowak
1. Adamski M.: Kondycja krów w okresie okołoporodowym a poziom wybranych parametrów krwi i płodności. Publication of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, 2010, pp. 7-84.
2. Akbar H., Grala T.M., Vailati Riboni M., Cardoso F.C., Verkerk G., McGowan J., Macdonald K., Webster J., Schutz K., Meier S., Matthews L., Roche J.R., Loor J.J.: Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J
J. Pivko, P. Makovický, A. Makarevich, A. Sirotkin, P. Makovický and E. Kubovičová
: Bromsulphatalein clearance and total billirubin level in cow deprived of food and water. Zbl. Vet. Med. A, 22, 605-610.
8. Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T., Webster, G. 1989: A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72, 68-78.
9. Enwonwu, C. O., Stambaugh, R., Sreebny, L., 1971: Synthesis and degradation of liver ribosomal RNA in fed and fasted rats. J. Nutr., 101, 337-346.
10. Fon Tacer, K., Rozman, D., 2011: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: focus on lipoprotein and lipid
Marcin Michałek, Piotr Frydrychowski, Jakub Adamowicz, Agnieszka Sławuta, Urszula Pasławska and Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak
algorithms as well as the VT score developed by Jastrzębski et al . ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 12 ). In veterinary medicine, no such algorithms are available, and the only parameter used for VT description is the duration of the QRS complexes. It is widely accepted that a duration of the QRS complex above 50 ms or 60 ms in large animals indicates a ventricular origin of the tachycardia ( 3 , 11 ). As previously mentioned, such an assumption may be erroneous due to preexisting or temporary interventricular conduction abnormalities, which could present with a similar ventricular
, H., 1989: Associations between types of lameness and fertility. Vet. Rec. , 125, 103—106.
4. Danscher, A. M., Toelboell, T. H., Wattle, O., 2010: B iomechanics and histology of bovine claw suspensory tissue in early acute laminitis. J. Dairy Sci. , 93, 53—62.
5. Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T., Webster, G., 1989: A body condition scoring chart for Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. , 72, 68—78.
6. Egger-Danner, C., Nielsen, P., Fiedler, A., Müller, K., Fjeldaas, T., Döpfer, D., et al., 2015: ICAR Claw Health Atlas. Rome
Marcin Gołyński, Piotr Dębiak, Magdalena Gołyńska, Ewa Myśliwiec, Piotr Szkodziak, Grzegorz Kalisz, Anna Śmiech, Krzysztof Lutnicki and Marcin Szczepanik
processing. Section 4 μm thick were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and examined under an Olympus BX63 light microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). All morphological studies were made using a blank test method, and slides were decoded when the results were obtained.
The slides were also analysed microscopically for evaluation of spermatogenesis according to the Johnsen score (JS) ( 15 ). Spermatogenesis was classified using a scale from 1 to 10 where these scores correspond to these criteria: score 10 – full spermatogenesis; score 9 – slightly impaired
J. Novotný, P. Reichel, K. Bárdová, P. Kyzeková and V. Almášiová
Clinoptilolite (Cp) is the most common and suitable natural zeolite type for many commercial and industrial applications. Recent studies have also shown a high potential of clinoptilolite in various medical applications. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of long-term peroral administration of clinoptilolite on appetites, the consistency of faeces, and the histopathology of the intestines of growing pigs. Fourteen Landrace × Large White crossbred pigs of both genders, a few days after weaning (12.95 kg b. w.), were divided into two equal groups. The control group was fed with a basal feed mixture, and the experimental group with a feed mixture supplemented with 2 % of natural zeolite (the commercial preparation “ZeoFeed”). The appetite, clinical state and consistency of the faeces were assessed every day. The blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, and 42 of the experiment. Histological examinations of the intestines from the control and experimental animals were carried out at the end of the experiments. The supplementation of 2 % Cp did not affect neither the appetite nor the clinical state of the pigs. The faecal consistency score in the experimental animals was 18.82 % lower than that of the control piglets. The histopathological evaluations showed protective evidence of the Cp on the intestinal tract wall in the duodenum and jejunum.
Jia-San Zheng, Jing-Nie, Ting-Ting Zhu, Hong-Ri Ruan, Xue-Wei and Rui-Wu
assessed under light microscopy. The degree of kidney injury was graded from 0 to 5 as follows: 0 – no injury; 1 – injury area < 10%; 2 – 10% ≤ injury area < 25%; 3 – 25% ≤ injury area < 50%; 4 – 50% ≤ injury area < 75%; and 5 – injury area ≥ 75%. Twenty fields of view (200 × high-power field) of the renal cortex and medulla were chosen for histopathological analysis. The mean scores of the lesions in all 20 visual fields were calculated, and the average renal tubular injury score of each field of view was taken as the final score. The dogs were administered
Yu-Xi Song, Pan Hu, Yun-Long Bai, Chang Zhao, Cheng Xia and Chuang Xu
types of postpartum anoestrus in cows, is caused by follicular growth disorders and transient functional disturbances of the ovaries ( 20 ). Deficient or nonexistent follicle cyclicity as an anoestrus cause is also IO ( 20 ). Many factors can cause or aggravate IO in cows, including low nutrient intake, high milk yield (MY), inadequate body condition score (BCS), and poor management of stress and diseases ( 2 ). However, nutritional status has a far-reaching impact on the reproductive performance of cows, as there is a close relationship between postpartum ovarian