Eisa Ebrahimi Dorche, Pejman Fathi and Alireza Esmaeili Ofogh
, using selected trophic and taxonomic metrics as state variables, Ecol. Modell. 207: 109–127.
Chawaka S.N., Boets P., Mereta S.T.T., Ho L.L.M., Goethals P., 2018, Using macroinvertebrates and birds to assess the environmental status of wetlands across different climatic zones in Southwestern Ethiopia, Wetlands 38(4): 653–665.
Czeniawska-Kusza I., 2005, Comparing modified Biological Monitoring Working Party score system and several biological indices based on macroinvertebrates for water quailty assessment, Limnologica 35(3): 169–176.
Davis J., Horwitz
iterative adaptation of the estimate, which in total should account for 100% when adding all estimated values and iii) by the non-additive properties of these scores, which do not allow for the computation of meaningful sums or means. In such cases, the mid-point of the corresponding interval of the score is often imputed (i.e., a percent value of 62.5 is assumed instead of a score corresponding to an interval from 50 to 75%). It is straightforward that the sum of the assumed values of all species cannot reproduce the sum of the real values of the species. They are just a
. 2000. Bird station manual . SEEN, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk.
Chernetsov N. 1999. Timing of spring migration, body condition, and fat score in local and passage populations of the Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus on the Courish Spit . Avian Ecol. Behav. 2: 75-88.
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Franson T., Jakobsson S. 1998. Fat storage in male Willow Warblers in spring: Do residence arrive lean or fat ? Auk 115: 759
In this paper, we present the results and analyse of tree height measurements, phenological observations (bud flushing), oak powdery mildew symptoms and multiple shoots of pedunculate oaks Quercus robur L. at the age of 12 years. The examined oaks belonged to 29 open pollination families. Family as well as individual heritability scored very highly for their respective indices. The calculated indices were 0.83 for tree height, 0.98 for flushing of buds, 0.53 for oak powdery mildew symptoms and 0.58 for the multi-stem index. Family seed orchards established using a completely randomized design are not a reliable substitute for progeny testing, because of the commonly small number of collected families.
Rumlerová, Z., Vilà, M., Pergl, J., Nentwig, W. & Pyšek, P. 2016: Scoring environmental and socioeconomic impacts of alien plants invasive in Europe. Biological Invasions 18(12): 3697–3711. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-016-1259-2
Saccone, P., Brun, J.J. & Michalet, R. 2010a: Challenging growth-survival trade-off: A key for Acer negundo invasion in European floodplains? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40(10): 1879–1886. https://doi.org/10.1139/X10-134
Saccone, P., Pagès, J.P., Girel, J., Brun, J.J. & Michalet, R. 2010b: Acer negundo
Kiraz Erciyas, Arzu Gürsoy, A. Özsemir and Y. Barış
Body mass and fat score changes in recaptured birds during the autumn migration at the Cernek ringing station in Turkey
The fat level and the body mass of recaptured birds ringed at the Cernek Ringing Station are presented in this study. Data from autumns of 2003-2005 were analysed. Species of different migratory and feeding habits are compared. A total of 351 recaptures of the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), Garden Warbler (S. borin), Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Marsh Warbler (A. palustris) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti) were mist-netted and handled according to the South-East European Bird Migration Network (SEEN) standards.
The mean weight changes of the Reed Warbler and Marsh Warbler and those of the Blackcap and Garden Warbler were similar within each genus but higher in Sylvia spp. as compared to Acrocephalus spp. The recapture rate was the highest in the Cetti's Warbler but the mean weight increase was the lowest as this is essentially a sedentary species. The stopover duration differed among the species. The mean stopover length was similar within Acrocephalus spp. (8.5 days in the Reed Warbler, 6.4 days in the Marsh Warbler) and Sylvia spp. (5.6 days in the Blackcap, 5.4 days in the Garden Warbler) and different in the Cetti's Warbler (16.6 days).
Results indicate that migratory birds use Cernek location as refuelling station during the autumn migration and their fat level and body mass increase, but differ according to feeding and migrating habits.
Five parallel channels of the Narew River (NE Poland) were hydromorphologically assessed with the River Habitat Survey (RHS) method. Four out of the five studied channels were partly separated from the functioning system of the anastomosing river by a dike for more than 20 years, and were subjected to gradual overgrowing and shallowing. In the 1990’s and in 2002, a number of renaturisation measures were implemented, restoring sufficient discharge for the channels to make them active again. The Habitat Modification Score (HMS) obtained as a result of the survey only classifies the fragment ecologically to the third class of streams with high HMS value in the case of the current main channel of the Narew River (largely formed in an artificial manner). This suggests substantial anthropogenic changes in the river channel and its vicinity. The aggregate values of the Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA) index suggest the preservation of numerous environmentally valuable elements at all of the five studied sites of the anastomosing Narew River system. This even concerns channels which remained almost separated and functioned as oxbow lakes for more than 20 years. The highest HQA values were recorded in the case of the channel constituting the main channel before the regulation, and a neighbouring regulated channel currently fulfilling the function of the main water course in this cross-section. In spite of long-term negative changes, the studied fragment of the ecosystem of the anastomosing river is distinguished by high resistance to “anthropogenic stress”, and high capacity for spontaneous restoration of a state close to the natural one. Although lotic ecosystems constitute elements of the natural environment particularly sensitive to anthropopressure, they retain the ability to regenerate for a long time, under the condition of providing them with relevant hydrological and ecological conditions.
Boban S. Đorđević, Dejan B. Đurović, Gordan D. Zec, Aleksandar B. Radović and Todor B. Vulić
The focus of our research was to evaluate different apples cultivars in terms of their biological properties and bioactive compounds content, and determine the levels of their resistance (or susceptibility) to fire blight. The properties of 10 scab-resistant apple cultivars were examined on the Žiča monastery estate (West Serbia) during the period from 2011 to 2015. The biological and chemical properties such as firmness, maturity stage, total soluble solids, total acids, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and surface blush of apple fruits were monitored. Various phenolic compounds in the tested samples were tentatively identified by LC-MS analyses. A study of generative properties included: number of flower buds, fruit mass and width, crop load, yield efficiency and yield. During the period of blooming and intensive shoot growth, artificial inoculations were carried out. For each cultivar, a fire blight score was determined by dividing the average length of necrotic tissue by the average total shoot length. In the study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’ (41.1 t ha−1) and ‘Florina’ (35.9 t ha−1) produced the highest yields, and the cultivars ‘Discovery’ (19.0 t ha−1) and Selection 25/63 (15.1 t ha−1) the lowest. The cultivar ‘William’s Pride’ produced the largest fruits, with an average fruit mass of 206.8 g. The earliest harvest period was recorded for the cultivar ‘Discovery’ (end of July), and the latest for the cultivar ‘GoldRush’ (beginning of October). The cultivar ‘Enterprise’ had the highest value of total phenols (432.2 mg 100 g−1 FW), while the cultivar ‘Topaz’ had the highest value of total flavanols (145.2 mg 100 g−1 FW). The highest degree of susceptibility to fire blight was found in Selection 25/63, and the greatest resistance was manifested by the cultivar ‘GoldRush’. In the five-year study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Enterprise’ exhibited better bio-chemical properties and higher levels of resistance to fire blight than the remaining cultivars.
Thi Minh Hang Vu, Viet Phu Tu and Klaus Duerrschmid
relationship, the high gazing group should possess higher percentage of choosing than other gazing groups, and vice versa.
In the ranking test, consumer decision-making is presented as ranking scores. A one-way ANOVA was performed as below to examine whether there are any significant differences in ranking scores between low, medium, and high gazing behaviour group.
R a n k i n g s c o r e s = m e a n + m a i n e f f e c t f o r G a z i n g g r o u p + e r r o r s
Ranking\, scores = mean + main\, effect\, for\, Gazing\, group +\\
Paul Ertl, Andreas Steinwidder, Magdalena Schönauer, Kurt Krimberger, Wilhelm Knaus and Werner Zollitsch
-edible fractions (% of protein and energy) of feedstuffs for a current (CURR) and a maximum (MAX) scenario (based on Ertl et al., 2015 and own calculations according to the same methods) and the calculated digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of the main human-edible feed protein sources ( Ertl et al., 2016 ) Tabelle 4. Angenommene humanernährungstaugliche Anteile von Futtermitteln unter einem derzeitigen (CURR) und einem Szenario mit maximalen Ausbeuten (MAX) (basierend auf Ertl et al., 2015 und eigenen Berechnungen nach denselben Methoden), sowie Score für