Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Murat Onur Yazlık, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Merve Menekse Yildirim, Ahmet Bas and Şükrü Küplülü
metabolic processes during the transition period to produce good quality colostrum and subsequently milk ( 31 ). Most cows suffer from clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia during the first days of lactation, and total plasma calcium levels reach their physiological level 2 to 3 days after parturition ( 17 , 32 ). Clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively affects energy metabolism and the immune status of cows and a variable degree of Ca insufficiency impairs leukocyte activity ( 24 ).
The body condition score (BCS) is a useful and simple method to assess an
Barbara Stefańska, Agnieszka Poźniak and Włodzimierz Nowak
1. Adamski M.: Kondycja krów w okresie okołoporodowym a poziom wybranych parametrów krwi i płodności. Publication of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, 2010, pp. 7-84.
2. Akbar H., Grala T.M., Vailati Riboni M., Cardoso F.C., Verkerk G., McGowan J., Macdonald K., Webster J., Schutz K., Meier S., Matthews L., Roche J.R., Loor J.J.: Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J
Marcin Michałek, Piotr Frydrychowski, Jakub Adamowicz, Agnieszka Sławuta, Urszula Pasławska and Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak
algorithms as well as the VT score developed by Jastrzębski et al . ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 12 ). In veterinary medicine, no such algorithms are available, and the only parameter used for VT description is the duration of the QRS complexes. It is widely accepted that a duration of the QRS complex above 50 ms or 60 ms in large animals indicates a ventricular origin of the tachycardia ( 3 , 11 ). As previously mentioned, such an assumption may be erroneous due to preexisting or temporary interventricular conduction abnormalities, which could present with a similar ventricular
Marcin Gołyński, Piotr Dębiak, Magdalena Gołyńska, Ewa Myśliwiec, Piotr Szkodziak, Grzegorz Kalisz, Anna Śmiech, Krzysztof Lutnicki and Marcin Szczepanik
processing. Section 4 μm thick were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and examined under an Olympus BX63 light microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). All morphological studies were made using a blank test method, and slides were decoded when the results were obtained.
The slides were also analysed microscopically for evaluation of spermatogenesis according to the Johnsen score (JS) ( 15 ). Spermatogenesis was classified using a scale from 1 to 10 where these scores correspond to these criteria: score 10 – full spermatogenesis; score 9 – slightly impaired
Jia-San Zheng, Jing-Nie, Ting-Ting Zhu, Hong-Ri Ruan, Xue-Wei and Rui-Wu
assessed under light microscopy. The degree of kidney injury was graded from 0 to 5 as follows: 0 – no injury; 1 – injury area < 10%; 2 – 10% ≤ injury area < 25%; 3 – 25% ≤ injury area < 50%; 4 – 50% ≤ injury area < 75%; and 5 – injury area ≥ 75%. Twenty fields of view (200 × high-power field) of the renal cortex and medulla were chosen for histopathological analysis. The mean scores of the lesions in all 20 visual fields were calculated, and the average renal tubular injury score of each field of view was taken as the final score. The dogs were administered
Yu-Xi Song, Pan Hu, Yun-Long Bai, Chang Zhao, Cheng Xia and Chuang Xu
types of postpartum anoestrus in cows, is caused by follicular growth disorders and transient functional disturbances of the ovaries ( 20 ). Deficient or nonexistent follicle cyclicity as an anoestrus cause is also IO ( 20 ). Many factors can cause or aggravate IO in cows, including low nutrient intake, high milk yield (MY), inadequate body condition score (BCS), and poor management of stress and diseases ( 2 ). However, nutritional status has a far-reaching impact on the reproductive performance of cows, as there is a close relationship between postpartum ovarian
May Phonvisay, Jai-Wei Lee, Jhong-Jie Liou, Hsian-Yu Wang and Chun-Yen Chu
constructs containing three copies of GACGTT motifs enhanced both humoral and cell-mediated immunity elicited by a rOmpA vaccine in ducks up to five weeks after the primary immunisation ( 3 , 8 ). Results from the homologous challenge showed that ducks immunised with a rOmpA + CpG ODN vaccine had a 90%-reduced pathological score in comparison with the control. In the present study, long-term antibody production (up to nine months post-immunisation) and cross-serotype reaction of the antibody were investigated in ducklings immunised with the rOmpA + CpG ODN vaccine
( 11 ), reduced reproductive performance ( 28 ), and increased risk of other illnesses, such as fatty liver, displaced abomasum, and metritis ( 23 ). These characteristics are usually indicative of an abnormal digestive capacity. The present study explored whether ketosis modifies milk yield, milk composition, and digestive capacity.
Material and Methods
Treatments and management . Fourteen Holstein cows with 2–3 parities were selected at 7–14 days postpartum. Cows with body weight of 606.4 ± 80.2 kg, body condition score of 2.86 ± 0.08, and previous lactation
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Aneta Pluta, Katarzyna Podgórska, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak and Anna Łukomska
cytokines including IL-1β in PBMCs from pigs infected with PRRSV, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), or both. Their findings implicated that the exacerbated clinical signs and lesion scores in co-infected pigs were related to the increased secretion of IL-1β ( 30 ).
Regarding IL-8, its mRNA expression level was downregulated at 2 and 4 dpi and remained unchanged at 21 dpi in PRRSV-infected pigs. IL-8 is a neutrophil chaemotactic factor and plays a central role in the inflammation process. According to the majority of studies, PRRSV induces IL-8 production in PAMs, BALF
Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
-matched curves fitted the curve well and meant a linear response over the range tested, in line with statistical modelling theory. From the statistical point of view, the convergence factor, one of the basic measures of quality and an indication of the closeness of match, should be greater than 0.9, proving an excellent fit (only a score of 1 qualifies as a perfect fit). Satisfactory apparent recoveries above 84% and below 110% were obtained for a concentration range from 5 to 50 μg kg −1 . The recovery values were in the reference range defined for minimum trueness of