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Improvement of Quality Characteristics of Gluten-Free Cookies with the Addition of Xanthan Gum

Abstract

People suffering from the celiac disease have to apply a strict gluten-free diet because this is the only effective management. Unfortunately removal of gluten results in low quality for many cereal products. The aimof this study was to improve the technological and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free cookies (GFC) by using xanthan gum (XG). XG was added at 0-1-2-3 and 4% levels into gluten-free flour mixture prepared with corn starch, corn flour, rice starch and potato starch. Quality properties of GFC were compared with gluten-containing soft wheat flour cookies (SWFC). Incorporation of XG to GFC significantly affected various parameters such as; lightness, yellowness, hardness, fracturability and thickness of GFC were increased while redness, width and spread ratio were decreased. Moisture and water activity of GFC with no added XG were observed much lower than GFC with XG. Addition of XG to GFC also improved the sensorial scores significantly. The addition of xanthan gum was improved technological and sensorial quality characteristics of GFC and usage level of 3% XG resulted in these scores similar to that of a wheat SWFC.

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Histological Assessment of an Experimental Model of Human Osteomyelitis in Rabbits

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to present a histological evaluation of the treatment performed on a humanmodel of osteomyelitis induced in rabbits. Osteomyelitis was induced in rabbits by a human strain of Staphylococcus aureus injected in bone defects created in the rabbit tibia. There have been created five groups of animals, groups receiving treatment in two different stages of the disease, acute and chronic. Copper and silver sub-millimetre-particles were introduced in the same place with the Staphylococcus solution. Evaluation of installation and evolution of the disease was done by clinical, hematological, microbiological, radiological and histological monitoring. A separate study of histological data is presented here. Histological examinations performed by HE was done on 5 μm sections of uncalcified bone. Every examination was classified according to a system of score. The results of histopathological evaluation confirm that histological analysis is a powerful tool in experimental models of this disease.

Open access
Impact of salt reduction on the number of microorganisms and a sensory analysis for Kranjska sausages during their shelf-life

Abstract

Salt is an important ingredient in the production of meat product. Any reduction of salt requires a special treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salt reduction on the growth of microorganisms in Kranjska sausages during their shell-life and to carry out a sensory assessment. The 18 lots of sausages were prepared under salt-reduced (1.6%) and control (2.3%) salt concentrations, directly on the production line. A total of 85 sausages were analysed and the data were used for the comparisons of groups (ANOVA) and to detect the significant variables (polynomial models) influenced on the total number of microorganisms (TNMs). The significant differences were determined between the lots (representing the microbiological status of the stuffing), between the salt-reduced samples and control samples, and between the different humidity levels. The correlations and significant relationships were determined between the TNMs and the lots, the salt concentrations, and the relative humidity. The polynomial models were to general to be used for the prediction. For sensory analysis implemented on 40th day 18 sausages were assessed. The reduction of salt resulted in lower scores in the sensory evaluation. The less-salted sausages contained more microorganisms.

Open access
The accuracy of the germination rate of seeds based on image processing and artificial neural networks

. Germinator: a software package for highthroughput scoring and curve ­tting of Arabidopsis seed germination. Plant J. 2010; 62(1):148-159. 8. Mayo M. Watson AT. Automatic species identi­cation of live moths. Knowledge-Based Systems, 2007;20:195-202. 9. McDonald MB. Seed quality assessment. Seed Sci. Res. 1998;8:265-275. 10. Rasband WS. Image. US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 2008. 11. <http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/index.html> Accessed August, 2012. 12. Uchigasaki M

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