Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Murat Onur Yazlık, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Merve Menekse Yildirim, Ahmet Bas and Şükrü Küplülü
metabolic processes during the transition period to produce good quality colostrum and subsequently milk ( 31 ). Most cows suffer from clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia during the first days of lactation, and total plasma calcium levels reach their physiological level 2 to 3 days after parturition ( 17 , 32 ). Clinical or subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively affects energy metabolism and the immune status of cows and a variable degree of Ca insufficiency impairs leukocyte activity ( 24 ).
The body condition score (BCS) is a useful and simple method to assess an
Barbara Stefańska, Agnieszka Poźniak and Włodzimierz Nowak
1. Adamski M.: Kondycja krów w okresie okołoporodowym a poziom wybranych parametrów krwi i płodności. Publication of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, 2010, pp. 7-84.
2. Akbar H., Grala T.M., Vailati Riboni M., Cardoso F.C., Verkerk G., McGowan J., Macdonald K., Webster J., Schutz K., Meier S., Matthews L., Roche J.R., Loor J.J.: Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J
Marcin Michałek, Piotr Frydrychowski, Jakub Adamowicz, Agnieszka Sławuta, Urszula Pasławska and Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak
algorithms as well as the VT score developed by Jastrzębski et al . ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 12 ). In veterinary medicine, no such algorithms are available, and the only parameter used for VT description is the duration of the QRS complexes. It is widely accepted that a duration of the QRS complex above 50 ms or 60 ms in large animals indicates a ventricular origin of the tachycardia ( 3 , 11 ). As previously mentioned, such an assumption may be erroneous due to preexisting or temporary interventricular conduction abnormalities, which could present with a similar ventricular
Daniel Osezua Aikhuele, Shahryar Sorooshian, Richard Hannis Ansah and Faiz Mohd Turan
-Based Syst., vol. 80, pp. 131-142, 2015.
18. D. O. Aikhuele and F. M. Turan, “A modified exponential score function for troubleshooting an improved locally made Offshore Patrol Boat engine,” J. Mar. Eng. Technol., vol. 4177, no. February, 2017.
19. Z. Xu, S. Member, and H. Liao, “Intuitionistic fuzzyanalytic hierarchy process,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 749-761, 2014.
20. D. O. Aikhuele and F. B. M. Turan, “An Improved Methodology for Multi-criteria Evaluations in the Shipping Industry,” Brodogradnja
Anita Dobek, Krzysztof Moliński and Ewa Skotarczak
Chandra T.K., Joshi S.N. (1983): Comparison of likelihood ratio, Rao’s and Wald’s tests and a conjecture of C.R. Rao. Sankhya A, 45: 226-246.
Fox J. (1997): Applied regression analysis, linear models, and related methods. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
Li B. (2001): Sensitivity of Rao’s score test, the Wald test and the likelihood ratio test to nuisance parameters. J. Statistical Planning and Inference 97: 57-66.
Madansky A. (1989): A comparison of the Likelihood Ratio
. 2000. Bird station manual . SEEN, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk.
Chernetsov N. 1999. Timing of spring migration, body condition, and fat score in local and passage populations of the Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus on the Courish Spit . Avian Ecol. Behav. 2: 75-88.
Dolnik V.R. 1975. [ Migratory disposition in birds .] Nauka, Moscow. (In Russian).
Franson T., Jakobsson S. 1998. Fat storage in male Willow Warblers in spring: Do residence arrive lean or fat ? Auk 115: 759
Marcin Gołyński, Piotr Dębiak, Magdalena Gołyńska, Ewa Myśliwiec, Piotr Szkodziak, Grzegorz Kalisz, Anna Śmiech, Krzysztof Lutnicki and Marcin Szczepanik
processing. Section 4 μm thick were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and examined under an Olympus BX63 light microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). All morphological studies were made using a blank test method, and slides were decoded when the results were obtained.
The slides were also analysed microscopically for evaluation of spermatogenesis according to the Johnsen score (JS) ( 15 ). Spermatogenesis was classified using a scale from 1 to 10 where these scores correspond to these criteria: score 10 – full spermatogenesis; score 9 – slightly impaired
Kiraz Erciyas, Arzu Gürsoy, A. Özsemir and Y. Barış
Body mass and fat score changes in recaptured birds during the autumn migration at the Cernek ringing station in Turkey
The fat level and the body mass of recaptured birds ringed at the Cernek Ringing Station are presented in this study. Data from autumns of 2003-2005 were analysed. Species of different migratory and feeding habits are compared. A total of 351 recaptures of the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), Garden Warbler (S. borin), Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Marsh Warbler (A. palustris) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti) were mist-netted and handled according to the South-East European Bird Migration Network (SEEN) standards.
The mean weight changes of the Reed Warbler and Marsh Warbler and those of the Blackcap and Garden Warbler were similar within each genus but higher in Sylvia spp. as compared to Acrocephalus spp. The recapture rate was the highest in the Cetti's Warbler but the mean weight increase was the lowest as this is essentially a sedentary species. The stopover duration differed among the species. The mean stopover length was similar within Acrocephalus spp. (8.5 days in the Reed Warbler, 6.4 days in the Marsh Warbler) and Sylvia spp. (5.6 days in the Blackcap, 5.4 days in the Garden Warbler) and different in the Cetti's Warbler (16.6 days).
Results indicate that migratory birds use Cernek location as refuelling station during the autumn migration and their fat level and body mass increase, but differ according to feeding and migrating habits.
Maksims Feofilovs, Ieva Pakere and Francesco Romagnoli
Sustainable heating solutions involving renewable energy sources and low supply/return temperatures for district heating are evolving. Low temperature use in district heating allows reducing the heating operation costs significantly and at the same time holding the sustainability criteria. However, an in-depth study on environmental impacts during the life cycle of low temperature district heating was not conducted until now. Thus, this study aims to find the best development scenarios for development of local low temperature district heating. For this purpose, a methodology adopts life cycle analysis approach that allows assessing the environmental impacts according to a variety of environmental performance criterions. The results of the study showed an improvement in the overall environmental performance towards the transition of a conventional 3rd generation district heating to low temperature concept including the effects of reconstruction and modernization of the boiler house. A set of potential development is proposed. Specifically, the scenario implementing low temperature district heating with solar PV showed the best score for environmental performance. The scenario with implementation of low temperature district heating without solar PV did not show significant improvement in environmental performance under operation conditions of a pilot case study.
Colin Fogarty, Conor Smyth, Paul Whyte, Nigel Brunton and Declan Bolton
changes, but the latter is the primary determinant of shelf life ( Anacleto et al., 2011 ).
The quality index method (QIM) is a scheme used to assess the freshness of fish based on scoring different sensory attributes (appearance, odour and texture) during storage ( Bremner, 1985 ). Assuming the quality index (QI) increases linearly with time, once the total score for fish at the end of their shelf life is established, the score obtained prior to this can be used to estimate the remaining shelf life ( Martinsdóttir et al., 2001 ). A similar approach, quantitative