Akshay Sharma, Madhumeet Singh, Pravesh Kumar and Pradeep Kumar Dogra
1. Cerri, R.L.A., Santos, J.E.P., & Juchem. S.O., Galvao, K.N., Chebel, R.C. (2004). Timed artificial insemination with estradiol cypionate or insemination at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(11), 3704-3715.
2. Edmonson, A.J., Lean, I.J., Weaver, L.D., Farver, T. and Webster, G. (1989). A body condition scoring chart of Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 72(1), 68-78.
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In this study, ‘Rabbab’ pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) were subjected before storage to single-layered wax coating (SLW), double-layered wax coating (DLW), individual-seal film packaging (ISP), tray wrap film packaging (TWP), and combined treatments of SLW + ISP or SLW + TWP. Treated fruits were then stored at ambient temperature (15–20 °C; 45–50% relative humidity – RH) or in cold conditions (5 °C ± 0.5; 85% RH) for 18 weeks. TWP, ISP, DLW, and SLW extended the shelf life of pomegranates for 18, 18, 12, and 11 weeks at cold (5 °C) condition, and also for 6, 5, 3, and 3 weeks at ambient condition, respectively, whereas the shelf life of control fruits were 10 and 2 weeks at cold and ambient conditions, respectively. After 18 weeks of storage, the weight loss in ISP and TWP fruits was 0.6 and 0.4% at cold condition and 12.4 and 5.4% at ambient condition, respectively. In general, film packaging maintained vitamin C, total titratable acidity, and sensory analysis scores for color, freshness, juiciness, and taste of pomegranates more effectively than wax coating and control. However, the combination of SLW and ISP or TWP did not improve the efficiency of pomegranates packaged as either ISP or TWP.
Anna Skorupińska, Dorota E. Kruczyńska, Dorota Konopacka, Urszula Kaczmarek, Krzysztof P. Rutkowski and Zbigniew B. Jóźwiak
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of 13 Asian pear cultivars grown in climatic conditions of central Poland. The following cultivars were tested: ‘Chojuro’, ‘Hayatama’, ‘Hosui’, ‘Kosui’, ‘Yuan Huang’, ‘Nijisseiki’, ‘Dżin Li’, ‘Er Shi Shinge’, ‘Er Jang Li’, ‘Golden 20th’, ‘Min Czi Li’, ‘San Li’, and ‘Shinseiki’. Pears were harvested in Experimental Orchard of Research Institute of Horticulture in Dąbrowice (near Skierniewice). Fruits were stored for 10 weeks at 0 °C in regular atmospheric conditions. Flesh firmness (FF), total soluble solids (TSS), and titratable acidity (TA) were measured at harvest and after the storage followed with 1 and 7 days of shelf life (SL) at 18 °C. After the storage, the sensory evaluation was also performed. Among the tested cultivars, ‘Min Czi Li’ and ‘San Li’ were the most firm (above 45 N) and ‘Kosui’ was the least firm (below 28 N) at harvest time. High amount of TSS (above 11% in both seasons and harvest dates) was observed in ‘Chojuro’, ‘Hayatama’, ‘Kosui’, ‘Yuan Huang’, and ‘Er Jang Li’ pears. Low TSS (not more than 10.6% at harvest) was observed in ‘Nijisseiki’, ‘Dżin Li’, and ‘Er Shi Shinge’ cultivars. The large differences among cultivars were observed in TA. High TA was observed in ‘Nijisseiki’ (above 0.32% in all terms of analyses) and low TA in ‘Hayatama’ and ‘Kosui’ (below 0.14%). All of the evaluated cultivars can be stored for 10 weeks at 0 °C in regular atmosphere without major negative impact on their quality characteristics. Fruits showed a slight (sometimes significant) decrease in FF after storage and a slight or no changes in TSS and TA. In sensory evaluations, ‘Chojuro’, ‘Hayatama’, ‘Hosui’, ‘Kosui’, ‘Yuan Huang’, ‘Er Jang Li’, ‘Er Shi Shinge’, and ‘Shinseiki’ (mostly cultivars characterized by high TSS) obtained highest scores for the overall quality (above 5.0 points in 10 points scale).
Patricia D. Oulai, Lessoy T. Zoué and Sébastien L. Niamké
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata) that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05) at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%), proteins (0.36-12.03%), vitamin C (19.56-68.67%), carotenoids (18.91-55.48%) oxalates (3.58-21.39%) and phytates (10.51-68.02%). The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16%) of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05) of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g), magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g), potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g), iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g) and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g). All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population
Algirdas Liutkevičius, Vilma Speičienė, Lina Vaičiulytė-Funk, Aldona Mieželienė, Gitana Alenčikienė, Algis Abaravičius, Loreta Bagdonaitė, Valerija Jablonskienė and Arvydas Kaminskas
health. Food Sci. Hum. Wellness, 2012, 1, 26–60.
21. Schaafsma G.J., The protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score. J. Nutr., 2000, 130, 1865–1867.
22. Stoyanova S., Geuns J., Hideg E., Van Den Ende W., The food additives inulin and stevioside counteract oxidative stress. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 2011, 62, 207–214.
23. Thorp A.A., Howe P.R., Mori T.A., Coates A.M., Buckley J.D., Hodgson J., Mansour J., Meyer B.J., Soy food consumption does not lower LDL cholesterol in either equol or nonequol producers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2008, 88, 298
In this article, common test results over the years 2000 – 2016 are analysed. The test questions for new entrants were based on secondary school mathematics. The students took the test in the first lesson of the higher mathematics course. The test results were analysed by years, by tasks and by specialities, and their differences were found. The test results’ dependence on state-exams score was studied and other types of dependence were looked at.
It was found that the test score has a strong correlation with a state-exam but with high school mathematics mark and with later higher mathematics course marks has very weak correlation. During these 16 years, the questions that have been the most difficult for students have not changed. The highest test scores were found among students who had chosen the most popular specialities (with the highest competition).
Since 2014, there have been admission tests in mathematics for applicants to the Estonian University of Life Sciences for Geodesy, Land Management and Real Estate Planning; Civil Engineering; Hydraulic Engineering and Water Pollution Control; Engineering and Technetronics curricula. According to admission criteria, the test must be taken by students who have not passed the specific mathematics course state exam or when the score was less than 20 points. The admission test may also be taken by those who wish to improve their state exam score. In 2016, there were 126 such applicants of whom 63 took the test. In 2015, the numbers were 129 and 89 and in 2014 150 and 47 accordingly. The test was scored on scale of 100. The arithmetic average of the score was 30.6 points in 2016, 29.03 in 2015 and 18.84 in 2014. The test was considered to be passed with 1 point in 2014 and 20 points in 2015 and 2016. We analyzed test results and gave examples of problems which were solved exceptionally well or not at all.
P. Kolbábek, P. Maxová, L. Kouřimská, D. Lukešová and R. Kotrba
Small animal producers in Europe can financially benefit if they sell not only carcasses or dissected cuts, but also processed meat and edible offal in value added products such as traditional and popular pâté. In particular, when introducing a new exotic species like eland (Taurotragus oryx) to the market, the sale of low valued cuts with higher collagen content is problematic. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensory traits of several pâtés made from liver and less valuable fresh or frozen meat cuts (neck, brisket and plate) of eland and cattle. Four batches of pâté made from fresh and frozen material (45 and 90 days) were tested by 35 panellists using sensory profiling method with 14 descriptors. Two pâté batches consisted of chicken liver and beef or eland meat. Another two were made from eland or beef liver together with eland meat. Pâté made from fresh material, including chicken or eland or beef liver, together with eland meat or beef showed the main differences in textural characteristics such as friability, overall texture being better scored for pâté which includes chicken liver. Chicken liver also resulted in a higher intensity of colour. Freezing of material (meat and liver) before processing into pâté resulted in worse scoring of the final product. Chicken liver batches scored better in sensory traits of overall appearance, pleasantness of taste, colour and intensity of colour, colour hue and textural friability, overall texture and of pleasantness of consistency. Pâté made from chicken liver from frozen material also had lower off-flavour. This pilot study showed that pâté from fresh eland meat and chicken liver scored the best in most of the sensory traits. Freezing and storing meat and liver before processing resulted in worse scores, especially in olfactory, visual and textural traits. The use of chicken liver instead of eland or beef liver to process pâté improves sensory traits.
Xingxiu Zhao, Jing Zhang, Hongmei Ming, Wei Zou, Yang Wang, Changqing Zhao, Shengdong Mu, Hao Zhang and Lin Qiu
Pediococcus acidilactici was used to ferment fresh pork. After fermentation, the pork jerky was subjected to sensory evaluation and the levels of pH, free amino acids, and volatile compounds were measured. The results showed that the fermented pork jerky had a better sensory evaluation score (score: 93.2), lower pH value (3.54), and more free amino acids (39.24 mg/100 g). Furthermore, in the fermented pork jerky, the content of three acids (18.552%) was high, which lowered the pH of the pork jerky and inhibited growth of pathogens. Moreover, some new compounds produced, including 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (49.095%), 2,3-butanediol (2.790%), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2.400%), oxalic acid isobutyl hexyl ester (2.280%), phenylethyl alcohol (0.953%), and eucalyptol (0.659%), contributed to the flavour of pork jerky. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. acidilactici can be used for the production as well as improvement of the quality and flavour of fermented pork jerky.