, unilateral droop, head tilt or bilateral droop), presence of nasal discharge (none, small amount of unilateral discharge, bilateral or excessive discharge or copious bilateral discharge) and ocular discharges (none, small amount, moderate amount of bilateral discharge or heavy discharge) ( McGuirk and Peek, 2014 ). A modified version of the Wisconsin calf health scoring criteria was used to score the calves’ clinical measurements and determine the incidents of the BRDC ( McGuirk and Peek, 2014 ). A respiratory score was devised from the cumulative score from nasal
D. Johnston, D.A. Kenny, M. McGee, S.M. Waters, A.K. Kelly and B. Earley
B. Murphy, P. Crosson, A.K. Kelly and R. Prendiville
due to the higher premium-earning capacity of steers ( Swinbank and Daugbjerg, 2006 ). Since then, the biological advantage of bulls compared to steers (superior growth rate, feed efficiency, carcass muscle proportion and the subsequent reduction in age at slaughter; Steen, 1995 ) has been exploited by beef producers. A further consideration is that current UK market specifications stipulate that dairy bulls be slaughtered at <16 mo of age, achieve a minimum carcass weight of 270 kg and have conformation and fat scores of ‘O=’ and ‘2+’ or greater, respectively
Y. Nian, J.P. Kerry, R. Prendiville and P. Allen
member, trained according to AMSA (1995) standards, received six samples in randomised order (each panellist tasted the steak samples in a different order within each session) in two sets of three, with approximately 3 min intervals between each set. Panel members were provided with salt-free crackers and water for cleansing the palate between samples. Panellists scored each sample for 16 attributes, defined and rated during different phases of eating ( Table 1 ). Roast beef aroma intensity was evaluated before eating, while the initial tenderness was the texture
Patryk Mizia, Dagmara Kwolek and Tomasz Ilnicki
RAPD analysis was applied to assess the degree of DNA polymorphism in A. fistulosum calli of high chromosomal instability. Nineteen of 24 randomly selected RAPD primers revealed scorable polymorphism between calli and seeds (reference material). Polymorphic band frequency was 55/237 in seeds and 36/233 in calli; variability on the DNA level was thus lower in calli than in seeds (15.4% vs. 23.2% of band positions). UPGMA analysis of Jaccard's coefficients confirmed the genetic similarity of the analyzed cultures. The most distinctive DNA changes in calli involved coincident loss of original bands or the appearance of novel bands. Seven such changes (4 losses, 3 gains) were observed. Our results suggest that changes on the chromosomal level and on the DNA level occurred independently of each other and that different callus lines underwent similar genetic changes during culture, presumably due to strong selection pressure effected by standard in vitro conditions.
László Erdős, Márta Zalatnai, Zoltán Bátori and László Körmöczi
The study of boundaries is a recurring theme in ecology. However, boundaries have been examined mainly on fine scales (between communities) and on coarse scales (between biomes), while boundaries of intermediate scales (e.g. between community complexes) are quite neglected. In this study, we analysed boundaries between mesic and xeric community complexes in a sub-Mediterranean karst area of South Hungary. We applied the moving split window (MSW) technique for boundary analysis. First, since the behaviour ofMSWconcerning complex vegetation patterns is not fully understood, we prepared artificial datasets (simulated communities) to test its capacities. Second, we established north-south oriented belt transects across mountain ridges of the Villány Mts, and investigated the transition between the community complexes of differently exposed slopes. UsingMSW, we were able clearly to distinguish between transitional zones and zones that do not represent real transitions: peaks in the Z-score profile of MSW merge only in the case of transitional zones. Moreover, we found that peaks merge depending on the independence (distinctness) of the transitional zone: when it is distinct, peaks merge only at the largest window widths. In the Villány Mts, transitions seem to occur mostly in the grasslands north of the ridges. We demonstrated that these grasslands can be regarded as boundaries between mesic and xeric complexes or as zones in their own right, with their own two boundaries. Interpretation depends upon the scale of observation.
Puneet Kumar, Pawan Kumar Rana, Vijay Kumar Singhal, Harminder Singh and Bhupendra Singh Kholia
Male meiotic studies were carried out on eight different accessions of Hedysarum astragaloides Benth. ex Baker (Fabaceae), an endemic and threatened species of northwest Himalaya, India. Although genetic factors such as meiosis, chromosome number, and ploidy level may be causative for the evolution, endemism, rare distribution or even extinction of the species, no detailed information exists. Keeping this in mind H. astragaloides has been studied cytologically. Male meiotic investigations revealed diploid level (2n=2x=14) for species and normal meiotic course in the accessions from the Manali Hills resulting in nearly 100% pollen fertility. However, the accessions scored from the Manimahesh Hills and Pangi Valley depicted inter-pollen mother cell transfer of chromatin material and structural heterozygosity for reciprocal translocations. Consequent upon these meiotic anomalies, some pollen sterility (21%) resulted. On account of this sweeping genetic outcome, the incidence of anomalies such as this in an endemic and threatened species warrants grave consideration. It is sensible to conclude that conservation measures should include the collection of germplasm from the localities where plants are meiotically stable with high gametic fertility, to ensure good germination and healthy plants for future use. Seeds from meiotically normal individuals should be given priority for inclusion in seed banks.
P. Tuohy, J. Humphreys, N.M. Holden, J. O’Loughlin, B. Reidy and O. Fenton
observed pedological attribute ( FAO 2006 ; Mueller et al ., 2007 ; Hartemink and Minasny, 2014 ). Initially each horizon in the soil profile is classified with respect to each of the indicators outlined. Each classification corresponds to a VDA score from which, when combined, soil permeability can be inferred ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Visual indicators of soil permeability, their interpretation, assigned visual drainage assessment (VDA) score and weighting (A =10, B = 4, C = 1) Indicator Classified by Classified as VDA Score Weighting
D. Madden, S. Harrison, J.A. Finn and D. Ó hUallacháin
macroinvertebrates to CDPs, with some sites even showing an increase in abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates downstream of access points. The objectives of this study were to assess the local-scale impact of CDPs on water quality parameters (i.e. macroinvertebrates and water chemistry metrics) and investigate whether streams with higher water quality scores are more likely to be adversely impacted by cattle access than those with lower water quality scores. It is anticipated that lessons learned from this study will help improve the targeting of future cattle exclusion
V. Nagarajappa, S.N. Battula, S. Arora and L.N. Naik
asked to taste the milk samples and rate the sensory parameters on 9-point hedonic scale. The scores were from 9 (like extremely) to 1 (dislike extremely). Water was provided to rinse the palate before and after tasting the sample. The test was conducted three times. Mean values from control and fortified samples for each of the three replications by each panellist were considered before statistical analysis. Physicochemical analysis The pH of the milk samples was determined using a pH metre (CyberScan 2500; Eutech Instruments, Mumbai, India). Titratable acidity
D.P. Berry, N. McHugh, E. Wall, K. McDermott and A.C. O’Brien
. An additional one SNP was discarded, which had poor genotype cluster resolution dictated by a GenTrain score <0.55. The GenTrain score is a clustering algorithm propriety to Illumina Inc. and is useful as a measure of the distinction between genotype calls for a given SNP. Berry et al . (2016) evaluated the reproducibility of genotypes from the same SNP locus generated on technical duplicate samples for the same Illumina platform or different Illumina platforms. A total of 1,400 of the remaining SNPs in the present study, reported by Berry et al . (2016) to