References 1. Cerri, R.L.A., Santos, J.E.P., & Juchem. S.O., Galvao, K.N., Chebel, R.C. (2004). Timed artificial insemination with estradiol cypionate or insemination at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(11), 3704-3715. 2. Edmonson, A.J., Lean, I.J., Weaver, L.D., Farver, T. and Webster, G. (1989). A body condition scoring chart of Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 72(1), 68-78. 3. Kamimura, S., Ohgi, T., & Takahashi, M., Tsukamoto, T. (1993). Postpartum resumption of ovarian activity and uterine
Akshay Sharma, Madhumeet Singh, Pravesh Kumar and Pradeep Kumar Dogra
Patricia D. Oulai, Lessoy T. Zoué and Sébastien L. Niamké
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata) that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05) at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%), proteins (0.36-12.03%), vitamin C (19.56-68.67%), carotenoids (18.91-55.48%) oxalates (3.58-21.39%) and phytates (10.51-68.02%). The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16%) of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05) of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g), magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g), potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g), iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g) and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g). All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population
Algirdas Liutkevičius, Vilma Speičienė, Lina Vaičiulytė-Funk, Aldona Mieželienė, Gitana Alenčikienė, Algis Abaravičius, Loreta Bagdonaitė, Valerija Jablonskienė and Arvydas Kaminskas
health. Food Sci. Hum. Wellness, 2012, 1, 26–60. 21. Schaafsma G.J., The protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score. J. Nutr., 2000, 130, 1865–1867. 22. Stoyanova S., Geuns J., Hideg E., Van Den Ende W., The food additives inulin and stevioside counteract oxidative stress. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 2011, 62, 207–214. 23. Thorp A.A., Howe P.R., Mori T.A., Coates A.M., Buckley J.D., Hodgson J., Mansour J., Meyer B.J., Soy food consumption does not lower LDL cholesterol in either equol or nonequol producers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2008, 88, 298
In this article, common test results over the years 2000 – 2016 are analysed. The test questions for new entrants were based on secondary school mathematics. The students took the test in the first lesson of the higher mathematics course. The test results were analysed by years, by tasks and by specialities, and their differences were found. The test results’ dependence on state-exams score was studied and other types of dependence were looked at.
It was found that the test score has a strong correlation with a state-exam but with high school mathematics mark and with later higher mathematics course marks has very weak correlation. During these 16 years, the questions that have been the most difficult for students have not changed. The highest test scores were found among students who had chosen the most popular specialities (with the highest competition).
Erge Ideon and Eve Aruvee
Since 2014, there have been admission tests in mathematics for applicants to the Estonian University of Life Sciences for Geodesy, Land Management and Real Estate Planning; Civil Engineering; Hydraulic Engineering and Water Pollution Control; Engineering and Technetronics curricula. According to admission criteria, the test must be taken by students who have not passed the specific mathematics course state exam or when the score was less than 20 points. The admission test may also be taken by those who wish to improve their state exam score. In 2016, there were 126 such applicants of whom 63 took the test. In 2015, the numbers were 129 and 89 and in 2014 150 and 47 accordingly. The test was scored on scale of 100. The arithmetic average of the score was 30.6 points in 2016, 29.03 in 2015 and 18.84 in 2014. The test was considered to be passed with 1 point in 2014 and 20 points in 2015 and 2016. We analyzed test results and gave examples of problems which were solved exceptionally well or not at all.
P. Kolbábek, P. Maxová, L. Kouřimská, D. Lukešová and R. Kotrba
Small animal producers in Europe can financially benefit if they sell not only carcasses or dissected cuts, but also processed meat and edible offal in value added products such as traditional and popular pâté. In particular, when introducing a new exotic species like eland (Taurotragus oryx) to the market, the sale of low valued cuts with higher collagen content is problematic. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensory traits of several pâtés made from liver and less valuable fresh or frozen meat cuts (neck, brisket and plate) of eland and cattle. Four batches of pâté made from fresh and frozen material (45 and 90 days) were tested by 35 panellists using sensory profiling method with 14 descriptors. Two pâté batches consisted of chicken liver and beef or eland meat. Another two were made from eland or beef liver together with eland meat. Pâté made from fresh material, including chicken or eland or beef liver, together with eland meat or beef showed the main differences in textural characteristics such as friability, overall texture being better scored for pâté which includes chicken liver. Chicken liver also resulted in a higher intensity of colour. Freezing of material (meat and liver) before processing into pâté resulted in worse scoring of the final product. Chicken liver batches scored better in sensory traits of overall appearance, pleasantness of taste, colour and intensity of colour, colour hue and textural friability, overall texture and of pleasantness of consistency. Pâté made from chicken liver from frozen material also had lower off-flavour. This pilot study showed that pâté from fresh eland meat and chicken liver scored the best in most of the sensory traits. Freezing and storing meat and liver before processing resulted in worse scores, especially in olfactory, visual and textural traits. The use of chicken liver instead of eland or beef liver to process pâté improves sensory traits.
Xingxiu Zhao, Jing Zhang, Hongmei Ming, Wei Zou, Yang Wang, Changqing Zhao, Shengdong Mu, Hao Zhang and Lin Qiu
Pediococcus acidilactici was used to ferment fresh pork. After fermentation, the pork jerky was subjected to sensory evaluation and the levels of pH, free amino acids, and volatile compounds were measured. The results showed that the fermented pork jerky had a better sensory evaluation score (score: 93.2), lower pH value (3.54), and more free amino acids (39.24 mg/100 g). Furthermore, in the fermented pork jerky, the content of three acids (18.552%) was high, which lowered the pH of the pork jerky and inhibited growth of pathogens. Moreover, some new compounds produced, including 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (49.095%), 2,3-butanediol (2.790%), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2.400%), oxalic acid isobutyl hexyl ester (2.280%), phenylethyl alcohol (0.953%), and eucalyptol (0.659%), contributed to the flavour of pork jerky. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. acidilactici can be used for the production as well as improvement of the quality and flavour of fermented pork jerky.
Gohar Afrooz, Naser Sabaghnia, Rahmatollah Karimizadeh and Fariborz Shekari
Knowledge about the extent of variability and the association among traits are of a high value for any breeding efforts. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the agro-morphological traits in a set of durum wheat genotypes under supplemental irrigation and dry land conditions. Results showed that principal component (PC) analysis had grouped the measured traits into four main components that altogether accounted for 77% of the total variation under non-stressed condition and 87% under water-stressed condition. With regard to the first four PCs, peduncle length, agronomic score, grain yield, vigority, test weight, days to physiological maturity and thousand kernel weight have shown to be the most important variables affecting the performance of durum wheat under non-stressed condition. In the first four PCs at the water- stressed condition, agronomic score, grain yield, vigority, days to physiological maturity, test weight and peduncle length have been shown to be the important variables under water-stressed condition. The results of factor analysis relatively confirmed the results of PC analysis. Our findings indicated that a selection strategy should take into consideration of agronomic score and days to physiological maturity under non-stressed condition while plant height and spike length under water-stressed condition. Therefore, the above-mentioned traits could be used as indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of grain yield in durum wheat, especially in early generations of breeding programmes
Sandra N. Jimenez-Garcia, Moisés A. Vázquez-Cruz, Rita Miranda-Lopez, Lina Garcia-Mier, Ramon G. Guevara-González and Ana A. Feregrino-Perez
The effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was evaluated on sensory quality traits of two commercial sweet bell pepper varieties, Fascinato and Orangela, by descriptive sensory evaluation, principal component analysis (PCA), and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). A sensory descriptive lexicon was established for the sweet pepper and an intensity score was assigned for 25 sensory attributes in all the samples. Such intensity score was performed by twelve trained panelists. Among the results it was shown that foliar application of elicitors to pepper crop produced significant differences in sensory traits of the harvested fruits. MANOVA allowed detecting differences in aroma profile among treatments and varieties, showing important changes depending on the combination of elicitors applied on each variety. The principal component analysis (PCA), showed that the PC1 explained 81.02%, while PC2 explained 9.24% of the variance in the results. A strong correlation between varieties and treatments 2 (36 mM H2O2) and 4 (0.1 mM SA and 36 mM H2O2) with PC1 was observed. Treatments 2 and 4 were related to changes in aroma and flavor traits. Fascinato was more susceptible to the effect of elicitor than Orangela. Therefore, elicitor combinations used in this experiment were capable to improve sensory quality of peppers, and not only promote an increase in shelf life as previous studies have shown.