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Open access

R. D. Burdon

Abstract

With a variable that is recorded on a scale with fixed bounds, it can be appropriate to use for the denominator of the coefficient of variation the square root of the (sign-independent) product of the differences between the mean and the two bounds of the scale. A simple illustrative example is given.

Open access

M. Shepherd, C. Bihua and R. Henry

Journal of Botany 44: 331-341. ELDRIDGE, K., J. DAVIDSON, C. HARWOOD and G. VAN WYK (1994): Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Oxford University Press, Oxford. GLAUBITZ, J., EMEBIRI and G. MORAN (2001): Dinucleotide microsatellites in Eucalyptus sieberi: Inheritance, diversity and improved scoring of single base differences. Genome 44: 1041-1045. GLAUBITZ, J. C., H. X. WU and G. F. MORAN (2003): Impacts of silviculture on genetic diversity in the native forest species Eucalyptus sieberi. Conservation Genetics 4: 275

Open access

In-Sik Kim, Hae-Yun Kwon, Keun-Ok Ryu and Wan Yong Choi

Abstract

Thirty-six provenances of Pinus densiflora were evaluated for stability and adaptability for height growth at 11 test sites in Korea. The data were obtained from measurements at age 6 and analyzed using linear regression model and AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) model. There was significant provenance by site interaction effect (p < 0.011). The interaction term explained 7.1% of total variation. While the regression model accounted for 15.8% of GxE interaction term, the AMMI model accounted for 74.9% with four PCA values. Most of the provenances were not significantly different from the unity (b =1.0), except for Inje (1), Jungsun (4), Bongwha (5), Koryung (26), Hamyang (30) and Seoguipo (36). Adaptability of provenances to the test sites was estimated with mean height growth and first AMMI component scores (IPCA 1). Inje (1), Bongwha (5), Taean (20) and Seoguipo (36) were specifically adapted to the high yielding environments. Considering the first and second AMMI components (IPCA 1 and IPCA 2, respectively) scores, Whachun (2), Samchuk (10), Joongwon (14) and Buan (29) provenances were more stable than others. The implication of GxE interaction was discussed in view of seed transfer and delineation of seed zones.

Open access

F. Li and S. Gan

Abstract

Integration of fluorescent-dUTP in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appears to be a sound method for fluorescence labelling of amplicons in genotyping with simple sequence repeats (SSRs) using an automated sequence analyser. However, the method has not been explored in terms of performance optimisation and cost control. In this paper, we optimised the protocol for fluorescent-dUTP based SSR genotyping in a case study with Eucalyptus. A combination of low dNTP concentration (25 μM each) in PCR reaction and a touchdown PCR programme contributed to increase dramatically the fluorescent intensity of SSR amplicons, thereby facilitating accurate and multiplexed scoring of SSR alleles. The usefulness of the optimised protocol was demonstrated in its application to genetic mapping of SSR loci onto E. urophylla and E. tereticornis linkage maps constructed previously. The protocol optimised here would provide a reliable and economical assay for sequencer-based SSR genotyping in a wide range of biological applications.

Open access

Parvin Salehi Shanjani, C. Vettori, R. Giannini and R. A. Khavari-Nejad

Abstract

CpDNA variation in Iranian beech, Fagus orientalis Lipsky (Fagaceae) was studied in 14 populations distributed throughout the species range in the Hyrcanain zone. Two cpDNA intergenic regions were analyzed: (i) one in the DT region between trnD (tRNA-Asp) and trnT (tRNA-Thr) genes, and (ii) one in the OA region between the orf184 and petA genes. The restriction fragments of the region DT did not show polymorphism among individuals within any population analyzed. However, among individuals within analyzed populations of Asalem region and Neka-1400 population, polymorphism in the restriction fragments of the OA region were found. A total of 3 different chloroplast (cp) haplotypes were scored. The distribution of the cpDNA haplotypes revealed a geographical structure of the genetic differentiation with Gst = %68.7 and Nst = %70.3. The distribution pattern of F. orientalis cpDNA haplotypes may reflect environmental differences and migration history of beech during historical distribution in Tertiary from Asalem (most polymorphic region) to East of Hyrcanian forests.

Open access

Iris Wagner, W.D. Maurer, P. Lemmen, H.P. Schmitt, M. Wagner, M. Binder and P. Patzak

Abstract

Malus sylvestris is the only apple species native to Central Europe. Its genetic integrity may be threatened by hybridization with the cultivated apple (Malus × domestica). A total of 883 genotypes, 477 putative wild apples in Germany and Luxembourg and 406 old to modern cultivars has been investigated. Wild apples growing in Germany originated from Rhineland-Palatinate, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony. The genetic structure was analysed at ten isozyme marker loci, and morphology was studied by fruit size, leaf pubescence, and a complex morphological description performed in advance. A model-based cluster analysis applied to all nuclear data resulted in two clearly differentiated gene pools for putative wild and cultivated apples with moderate proportions of admixture in the wild group on average (0.138 total, 0.111 German sample). At the individual level, the percentages of both hybrids and feral cultivars together ranged from 2.3% in Rhineland-Palatinate to 28.8% in Luxembourg. The intraspecific variability in fruit diameter ranged from 21 to 40 mm, and that in leaf pubescence in autumn ranged from score 0 to score 1. No single morphological trait of a specimen appeared to be sufficient for identification. Even the correspondence between the complex morphological and complex genetic determinations for individuals did not exceed 93% in pure wilds and 64% in hybrids. Genetic variation in pure wild apple is high (species level: P = 90%, A/L = 3.1, He = 0.369). Allelic differentiation & was 0.089, pairwise genetic distance (d0) ranged from 0.065 to 0.148 among five samples. Correspondence between genetic and geographic distance of populations was observed to a certain extent.

Open access

Darius Danusevicius, G. Masaitis and G. Mozgeris

Abstract

Genetic diversity is an important indicator of forest sustainability requiring particular attention and new methods to obtain fast and cheap estimates of genetic diversity. We assessed the differences in visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance properties of detached shoots of several distant Scots pine provenances aiming to identify the most informative spectral wavebands and the seasonal time for the genetic diversity scoring. Shoots of five trees per provenance were sampled at two week intervals during the active growth and fall. The samples were scanned using a hyperspectral camera, equipped with a highly sensitive spectrometer capable of covering the spectral range of 400-1000 nm with a sampling interval of 0.6 nm. The ANOVAs revealed significant provenance effects on the spectral reflectance at variable spectral intervals depending on the sampling occasion. During the active growth, PCA identified the most informative wavebands over whole spectral range investigated. During the shoot/needle hardiness development, NIR was the most informative. Provenance ranking in spectral reflectance returned geographically interpretable pattern. We conclude that there are significant provenance attributable and interpretable differences in spectral reflectance of Scots pine needles providing a good opportunity for detecting this spectral variation with the hyperspectral imaging technique.

Open access

Piero Belletti, S. Leonardi, I. Monteleone and P. Piovani

Abstract

Allozyme variation was studied by electrophoresis at 11 loci in 14 populations of Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. cerris and Q. pubescens from Piedmont, northwestern Italy. The aim of the work was to characterize the genetic resources and to suggest effective measures for in situ preservation of biodiversity. As expected, most of the genetic variability was found at the within population level, and genetic differentiation accounted for about 14% of it. The study confirmed the low level of genetic variability among the species studied: only Q. cerris populations could be clearly distinguished. Q. pubescens could be separated from Q. petraea and Q. robur using Principal Coordinate Analysys. The latter was also found to be useful for separating Q. petraea and Q. robur populations. However, in mixed populations, the differentiation between the latter species was similar to that scored among populations belonging to the same species. A significant deviation from random mating was observed, although it was variable among species: Q. pubescens had the highest value for the inbreeding coefficient FIS (0.159).

Open access

A. Kormutak, B. Demankova and D. Gömöry

Abstract

Molecular evidence for spontaneous hybridization between Pinus sylvestris L. and P. mugo Turra in the putative hybrid swarm populations of the species in Slovakia was provided based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the cpDNA trnV-trnH region. Species-specific restriction profiles generated by Hinf I digests of the cpDNA products reliably identified P. sylvestris and P. mugo haplotypes of the embryos from open pollination. Simultaneous analysis of the respective cpDNA region in megagametophytes and embryos of individual seeds along with needles of a given maternal tree has enabled to score either the P. sylvestris or P. mugo haplotypes in the embryos illustrating hybridization patterns between the two species. Data obtained in this way indicate a relatively extensive hybridization which takes place between P. sylvestris and P. mugo. The extent of hybridization varied among populations as evidenced by the 41.1-58.7% proportion of hybrid embryos registered on the locality Habovka, and by the 8.3% and 2.7% proportions of hybrid embryos on the localities Tisovnica and Sucha Hora, respectively. The approach itself is recommended as a convenient method for monitoring the hybridization patterns in sympatric zones of the studied pine species.

Open access

F. Santi and J. Dufour

Abstract

For the first time, the diversity of wild cherry in Caucasia was sampled: 5 populations of Georgia, together with 11 French populations. 23 alleles from 7 isozyme loci were scored, among them 6 new alleles in Georgia. Though the total number of alleles was higher in Georgia (A = 2.4) than in France (A = 2.0), the diversity was higher in France (He = 0.324) than in Georgia (He = 0.284). A higher level of differentiation was found in France (Fst = 0.094) than in Georgia (Fst = 0.057), and the total Fst was even higher (0.108). Mean pairwise distances inside the French group, the Georgian group and between the two groups were 0.054, 0.037 and 0.094, respectively. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between genetic and geographical distances was 0.58 (p = 0.014) between France and Georgia, which indicated a moderate pattern of isolation by distance. The number of migrants after correction of size was high among the French populations (Nm= 7.6) and even higher among the four nearby Georgian populations (Nm= 32), but it was very low between the pooled French populations and the pooled Georgian populations (Nm= 0.33). Georgia in Caucasia, as an extreme country in the distribution area, can be considered as a source of neutral gene diversity for wild cherry, and thus may also be one for adaptative gene diversity we could use to increase the genetic base of our western country wild cherry breeding populations.