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Iwona Murawska, Beata Przyborowska, Violetta Kopińska and Piotr Błajet

are divided into the types indicated in Table 2 . (3) Table 1 Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. Education compared to place of residence Village City Education % % Higher 8.8 18.6 Secondary and vocational 24.6 35.2 Source: http://www.polskawliczbach.pl/kujawsko_pomorskie (2017.09.05) Table 2 School type based on the EVA index School type Description Neutral schools Average scores + average effectiveness Supportive schools Low scores + high effectiveness Successful schools High

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Ali Soltani, Rasoul Balaghi Inaloo, Mohammad Rezaei, Fatemeh Shaer and M. Akbari Riyabi

itself gives a score of 1 (equivalent priority). Therefore, 1 is assigned to all elements on the diagonal of the pair-wise comparison matrix ( Mahmoodzadeh, 2010 : 92). B. Calculation of criteria weighting: This stage includes the following operations: a) adding up the values of each column of the pair-wise comparison matrix; b) dividing each element of the matrix by its column total (the resulting matrix is called normalised pair-wise comparison matrix); (c) computing the average of the elements in each row of the normalised matrix. These averages will give an

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Fiona Drummond and Jen Snowball

household’s score, where assets that are more unequally distributed will have a higher weight. The relative ranking of households using their scores is then used as a measure of SES ( Filmer and Pritchett, 2001 ). However, PCA is designed to be used on continuous, normally-distributed data and so its application to data sets that contain categorical variables, as is often the case with census data, is considered to be inappropriate ( Booysen et al., 2008 ; Howe et al., 2008 ). Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) is more appropriate, as it is the only multivariate

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Cletus Famous Nwankwo

¯ ) $$ \sum{_{j}}{{w}_{ij}}\left( {{x}_{j}}-\overline{x} \right)$$ A positive Moran’s index that is statistically significant shows the presence of spatial dependence, and a significant negative index suggests a pattern of variation. To evaluate the significance of Moran’s I , the standard deviate, or z-score of the index is employed based on the hypothesis of random distribution of values of x ( Shin, Agnew, 2007 ). The value of I is significant when a Z-statistics created with the mean and variance of I approaches a normal distribution ( Rogerson, 2006 ). Moran

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Agata Frankowska, Izabella Łęcka and Jan Frankowski

organisation operates. Most of the NGO leaders were not present on social media. The most active individuals were: Wojciech Wilk of the Polish Center for International Aid and Janina Ochojska of Polish Humanitarian Action. The former gained the highest score in terms of LinkedIn presence, and the latter on Twitter. These two leaders have years of field experience in the area of development and humanitarian assistance, as well as established contacts with international organisations. The leaders of religious organisations tended to ignore Twitter and Linked-In. The

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Temidayo Gabriel Apata

structured into three sectors, namely: the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (SPP) responsible for handling and preventing cases of embezzlement and bribery, the Central Commission for Disciplinary Inspection (CCDI) to check corruption among political elites, and the Ministry of Supervision (MOS) to restrain corruption and maladministration within the civil service ( Keyuan, 2003 ; UNDP, 1999; Glynn et al ., 1997). Table 6 Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Corruption Control and Government Efficiency in Percentile Rank and Governance Score Corruption

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Tembi M. Tichaawa and Sakhile Moyo

the male respondents had higher mean ratings than did the female respondents for all factors except NECI, in which case the scores were almost equal. The difference detected was found to be significant at a 5% level for both PSCI and PENI. The finding indicates a gender effect for the positive sociocultural and environmental impacts of tourism development in the area, with men scoring the positive impacts significantly higher than did the women, on average. The above might indicate that the men involved were more supportive of their sociocultural and environmental

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Agnieszka Szczepańska and Katarzyna Pietrzyk

expressed by the mean of the scores given by the entire surveyed population, as well as by different age and sex groups to accentuate the differences in the opinions of male, female, older and younger respondents. None of the evaluated public spaces received an average of 5 points. Public spaces 3, 5, 8, 9, 14, 17 and 19 were most highly evaluated, which is consistent with the results of the multidimensional analysis of spatial order in public spaces 3, 5, 9, 17 and 19, but not in public spaces 8 and 14. The respondents gave the lowest marks to public spaces 2, 4, 7, 10