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Csaba Gábriš, Martin Kojnok, Marián Vanderka and Milan Kabát
G. Pollard and T. Barnett
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The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD) and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186) was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88) and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points) indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.
The aim of the study was to compare the satisfaction with quality of life indicators (QoLI) and quality of life domains (QoLD) scores between people with physical disabilities (PPD) and people who are deaf or hard of hearing (PD/HH) from sport participation point of view. The study included 315 individuals with PPD (n = 150; male = 76) and PD/HH (n = 165; male = 85) divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport and those who are not participating in any sport activity in their leisure. The second part of the Subjective Quality of Life Analysis (S.QUA.L.A.) was used. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences in 23 QoLI and 5 QoLD between PPD and PD/HH from sport participation point of view and student’s two-sample t-test was used to compare overall quality of life (QoL). We found that PD/HH who are participating regularly in sport presented significantly higher satisfaction with 7 evaluated QoLI and with all 5 QoLD. Overall QoL score was significantly higher (p < .01) in PD/HH. In the group of people who are not participating in sport we found significantly higher satisfaction with 13 QoLI in PD/HH and with 8 QoLI in PPD. Satisfaction with 4 QoLD was significantly higher in PD/HH and only with domain (physical health) were significantly higher satisfied PPD (p < .01). Overall QoL score did not show significant differences between groups of people with disabilities who are not participating in any sport. The results of our study confirmed that PD/HH have significantly higher QoL comparing PPD no matter if they participating in sport or not. This evaluation measured by S.QUA.L.A shows that it is a suitable tool to asses QoL in people with different kinds of disabilities.
C. A. Morales
A geometric simplification of a recent proposal for a new geometry of the penalty area for football (soccer) is presented. A simplified line is necessary because the fully mathematical curve previously proposed can be difficult to implement in the real world of football, which has thousands of tournaments at all –economic and generational–levels of the sport. The idea behind the proposal is that the game and its fairness can be improved if the penalty area is drawn according to mathematics or a measure of actual scoring chance.
Petr Schlegel and Ludmila Fialová
This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP) and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V) and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182) consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25) between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.
Silvia Priklerová and Ivan Kucharik
The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of a traditional (technical) approach and a tactical game based approach to teaching minihandball game skills the first- to fourth-grade elementary school pupils. The experimental design was two parallel-group trials. Experimental groups (EG) were taught by the tactical approach where modified and small-sided games comprised 80 % and drill-exercises 20 % of all the units. Control groups (CG) were taught by the technical approach where drill exercises comprised 70 % and modified and small-sided games 30 % of all the units. Two groups of first- and second-graders (EG n=16, CG n=17) and two groups of third- and fourth-graders (both EG and CG n=12) attending extracurricular activities oriented to minihandball participated in the study. The technique of offensive game skills (overarm pass, dribbling and shot) was evaluated by 1 to 5 scoring system. For statistical analysis, Wilcoxon’s T-test and Man-Whitney’s U-test were used and the level of significance was set to 5 %. Based on the results it can be stated that the tactical approach is as efficient as a technical approach on game skills’ technique acquirement. Results showed significant changes in the technique of game skills in both age categories (p<0.01). No significant differences between age categories were confirmed in game skill tests besides the dribbling test where the older experimental group (third- and fourth-graders) achieved better performance than the younger experimental group (first- and second-graders).
Matej Šmída, Michal Clementis, Dušan Hamar and Yvetta Macejková
Aim of this study was to compare relation between maximal anaerobic power output and 2,000 m test on rowing ergometer and relation between 6,000 m test and 2,000 m on rowing ergometer. It can be assumed that 2,000 m performance on rowing ergometer will significantly correlate with maximal anaerobic power output and 6,000 m performance. A group of 9 welltrained rowers (age: 18.3 years ± 2.8 years, sport age: 4.9 years ± 3.7 years, weight: 78.9 kg ± 12.2 kg, height: 182.3 cm ± 7.6 cm) performed three tests in 1 week to determine maximal anaerobic power, 6,000 m and 2,000 m performance on Concept 2 model D rowing ergometer. A value of simple maximal stroke out of 10-second all-out test with drag factor set to 200 was taken as a measure of maximal anaerobic power. Drag factor for 6,000 m and 2,000 m test was set individually. Average power during these tests was record. Research showed that both maximal anaerobic power and 6,000 m test correlated with 2,000 m test on rowing ergometer significantly (rmap = 0.93 p < 0.01, r6k = 0.95 p < 0.01). Maximal anaerobic power and 6,000 m tests seem to be good predictors for 2,000 m score on rowing ergometer. However, maximal anaerobic power test can be used to monitor rowing performance during specific training cycle instead of longer and more demanding 6,000 m test.
L. Yaldo and L. Shamir
The wage of a football player is a function of numerous aspects such as the player’s skills, performance in the previous seasons, age, trajectory of improvement, personality, and more. Based on these aspects, salaries of football players are determined through negotiation between the team management and the agents. In this study we propose an objective quantitative method to determine football players’ wages based on their skills. The method is based on the application of pattern recognition algorithms to performance (e.g., scoring), behavior (e.g., aggression), and abilities (e.g., acceleration) data of football players. Experimental results using data from 6,082 players show that the Pearson correlation between the predicted and actual salary of the players is ~0.77 (p < .001). The proposed method can be used as an assistive technology when negotiating players salaries, as well as for performing quantitative analysis of links between the salary and the performance of football players. The method is based on the performance and skills of the players, but does not take into account aspects that are not related directly to the game such as the popularity of the player among fans, predicted merchandise sales, etc, which are also factors of high impact on the salary, especially in the case of the team lead players and superstars. Analysis of player salaries in eight European football leagues show that the skills that mostly affect the salary are largely consistent across leagues, but some differences exist. Analysis of underpaid and overpaid players shows that overpaid players tend to be stronger, but are inferior in their reactions, vision, acceleration, agility, and balance compared to underpaid football players.
F. M. Clemente and F. M. L. Martins
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