). The performance of multiple imputation for likert-type items with missing data, Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 9 (1), 64-74.
Lord, F. M. (1974). Estimation of latent ability and item parameters when there are omitted responses. Psychometrika , 39 , 247-264.
Ludlow, L. H., & O’Leary, M. (1999). Scoring omitted and not reached items: Practical data analysis implications. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59 , 615-630.
Nonyane, B. A. S., & Foulkes, A. S. (2007). Multiple imputation and random forests (mirf) for
Paola Cappucci, Ángel Correa, Pedro Guerra and Juan Lupiáñez
Aasen, Håberg, A. K., Olsen, A., Brubakk, A., Evensen, K. A. I., Sølsnesg, A. E., Skranes, J., & Brunner, J. F. (2016). The relevance of the irrelevant: Attention and task-set adaptation in prematurely born adults. Clinical Neurophysiology , 127 (10), 3225-3233.
Angel, A. (1973). Input-output relations in simple reaction time experiments. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 25, 193-200.
Balaban, M., Losito, B., Simons, R. F., & Graham, F.K. (1986). Off-line latency and amplitude scoring of the human reflex eye blink with
, 146-153. doi:10.1080/09658211.2014.990982
Arnold, M. M., Higham, P. A., & Martín-Luengo, B. (2013). A little bias goes a long way: The effects of feedback on the strategic regulation of accuracy on formula-scored tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied , 19 , 383-402. doi:10.1037/a0034833
Beaupré, M. G., & Hess, U. (2006). An ingroup advantage for confidence in emotion recognition judgments: The moderating effect of familiarity with the expressions of outgroup members. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 32 , 16-26. doi:10
Michał Gacek, Władysława Pilecka and Agnieszka Fusińska-Korpik
-Dhaheri, A. (2000). Cross-cultural validation of Harter’s Self-Perception Profile for Children in the United Arab Emirates. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 20 (1), 8-11.
Gavin, D., A., W., Herry, Y. (1996). The French Self-Perception Profile for Children: Score validity and reliability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 4 (56), 678-700.
Granleese, J., Joseph, S. (1994). Further psychometric validation of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Personality and Individual Differences, 16 (4), 649-651.
Harter, S. (1985
Introduction: The goal of the present study was, in line with theoretical findings, to confirm a shift in metaphor and metonymy comprehension on a sample of Slovak children and to track an effect of a gender as well.
Methods: Metaphor and metonymy comprehension were measured with an author constructed tool consisting of eight metaphors and eight metonymies. Respondents were given a multiple choice option to select a correct meaning of metaphor or metonymy. The sample consisted of 120 elementary school children from Košice area. For an age assessment, two age groups were created based on elementary school grades-fourth grade (9-10 years) and eighth grade (13-14 years).
Results: Results of our study indicate that both metaphor comprehension and metonymy comprehension shift significantly with age. Eight graders scored significantly better than fourth graders in tasks given. We found statistically significant differences between genders as well. Girls scored significantly higher than boys both in metaphor comprehension and metonymy comprehension.
Discussion: Metaphor and metonymy comprehension progress significantly in time, supposedly in line with the development of other cognitive processes. Gender differences can be explained in part by female advantage in verbal processes proclaimed by some research.
Limitations: We see limits of our research in capturing a relatively narrow age range.
Conclusion: Our study aims to contribute to knowledge about figurative language development since only few researchers have addressed the problem. Perspectives for future research are in exploring given topic on various developmental stages to gain a complex understanding of metaphor and metonymy development in Slovak population and to better explain gender differences.
Jolana Laznibatová, Dušan Fábik, Ivan Belica and Mária Balážová
Introduction: The aim of the present research was to find out the frequency of use of particular coping strategies by intellectually gifted and common adolescents and to evaluate this frequency in the context of the personality structure.
Methods: The sample consisted of 253 pupils attending grammar schools in Bratislava from 14 to 18 years of age. According to own criteria, 85 of them were identified as exceptionally intellectually gifted. They included those who scored 120 and more at least in 2 from 3 subtests IST-R-2000 (Words, Numerical Scale, Cubes), or who had an average score at least 120 in the given subtests. The intellectually gifted children were compared with children with common intellect in the frequency of use of particular coping strategies (CSI copying questionnaire). Moreover, we investigated a relationship between these strategies and personality traits (NEO-FFI) separately in the group of gifted children and separately in the group of pupils with a common intellect.
Results: Gifted pupils use social isolation strategy significantly more often and, on the contrary, they use considerably less the social support strategy than pupils with normal intellect. A significant moderately strong correlation (>0.35) of neuroticism with problem solving (negative), escape into fantasy and self-criticism, furthermore, extraversion with social support and social isolation (negative), and finally, conscientiousness and problem solving was indicated in gifted children. As far as common pupils, such correlations have been demonstrated between neuroticism and escape into fantasy and self-criticism, and between conscientiousness and escape into fantasy (negative).
Limits: The selected criterion for intellectual talent can be set to a higher level in the future. The intellectual talent was evaluated only by 3 subtests of IST-R-2000.
Conclusion: Gifted pupils in stressful situations more often tend to withdraw in comparison to common pupils. The personality dimensions – neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are in relationship with management strategies. On the basis of the results, it can be assumed that the personality structure of gifted pupils is more strongly associated with the frequency of use of coping strategies than in common pupils.
The profession of a physical therapist is among so-called social professions, which are particularly exposed to high risks of burnout. Our paper analyzes the relationships between professional burnout in physical therapists and their perceived levels of stress, the strategies they use to cope with stress, as well as their levels of empathy and professional satisfaction. The following questionnaires were used in the study: the Burnout Scale Inventory (Okła & Steuden, 1998); the multidimensional coping inventory COPE (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989); and the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). Varying levels of professional burnout were observed in a sample of 76 physical therapists, who demonstrated no significant relationships between burnout and empathy levels. Higher burnout levels were found in participants working in public compared to privately-owned health centers, while those scoring higher on job satisfaction also had lower burnout results. Further, participants with higher professional burnout also reported higher levels of stress at the workplace and at home, as well as using avoidance coping strategies. The results of our study call for further investigation into the determinants of burnout in physical therapists and for implementing preventive measures.
Introduction: The aim of the present paper was to point out to the actual overview of tools used to measure spirituality in child age on the basis of an analysis of studies addressing the given issue included in the full-text database EBSCOa PsycINFO.
Purpose: The analysed studies were selected according to the following criteria: a) age range of respondents 6-11 years, that means, younger school age (studies where age of respondents included upper limit of stated age range were also accepted), b) the study included the use of a specific instrument for measuring spirituality (or selected scales), c) the study included the assessment of the psychometric properties of the instruments, d) the study was not qualitative, that means, spirituality was not measured through interviews or open questions.
Methods: Altogether, 15 research studies were analysed on the basis of which 8 instruments used for measuring spirituality in children were identified of which 3 tools (FGLL, Fisher, 2004; YSS, Sifers et al. 2012; SSSC, Stoyles et al. 2012) especially developed for use in child age (6-11 years) and 5 tools (SWBQ, Gomez & Fisher, 2003; RCOPE, Pargament et al. 2000; BMMRS, Fetzer Institute, 1999; SWBS, Ellison, 1983; FACIT-SP-12, Peterman et al. 2002) originally intended for work with the older population and used in the age group 11 years and over. The tools were subsequently described in terms of the theoretical structure, in terms of assessing the psychometric properties and assessing the quality of the tools and in terms of benefits or disadvantages when used with a child’s respondent. The theoretical bases of the instruments pointed out to the problem of the inconsistent and ambiguous definition of the spirituality construct, which is reflected in the different understanding of spirituality and its dimensions.
Conclusion: The psychometric indicators of particular instruments were evaluated and scored on the basis of selected criteria. According to the assessment, the absence of retest reliability verification, verification of some types of validity and the size of the set of validation studies was found out. From the perspective of the appropriateness of the use of tools, some tools seem to be problematic in particular to understand the particular items and omitting factors (for example family, peers) playing an important role in the spirituality of children.
. Med., 33, 239-249.
Miller, C., & Cronan, T. (1998). The effects of coping style and self-efficacy on health status and health care costs. Anxiety Stress Copin., 11(4), 311-325.
Oniszczenko, W. (1997). Kwestionariusz Temperamentu Arnold H. Buss and Robert Plomin EAS Temperament Questionnaire. Version for adults and children. Polish adaptation. Warszawa Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych.
Ormel, J., Riese, H., & Rosmalen, J. G. (2012). Interpreting neuroticism scores across the adult life course: immutable or experience
episode narratives: A core conflictual relationship theme approach. Psychotherapy Research, 20, 3, 321-336.
Luborsky, L. (1984). Principles of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A manual for supportive- expressive treatment. USA: Basic Books Inc.
Luborsky, L. & Friedman, S. (1998). Illustration of the CCRT scoring guide. In: L. Luborsky, P. Crits-Christoph (Eds.), Understanding transference: The Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Luborsky, L., Diguer, L