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Rafał Myszka and Kinga Niedziółka-Rybak

described in two contexts, firstly as democratic (including) space, secondly, as totalitarian (egalitarian) space. The score suggests whether each particular space is of a democratic or totalitarian character ( Nawratek 2005 : 46) ( Tab. 1 ). Table 1 Defining terms Source: ( Nawratek 2005 : 46), modified by the authors Totalitarian space Democratic space Size of structure Monumental Exceeding the in the scale traditional of its context meaning Respecting the scale of its context Form of structure Monumental Harking back to

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Jarosław Kazimierczak and Piotr Kosmowski

each block and horizontal intensity of development (I H ) in each block. In field studies we used a 4-degree evaluation scale for buildings and their elevations. Each positive change in the years 2013–2016 scored +1 point while each negative change scored -1. The demolition of buildings which degraded the urban landscape scored +4 points, and a new building +5 points. Much less visible improvements than in block G took place in blocks F (I T =15.62), E (I T =13.21), C (I T =9.17), B (I T =6.83), and A (I T =2.34). The technical condition of buildings deteriorated in

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Simon Huhndorf and Jarosław Działek

libraries such a strict number does not exist. Therefore, the E2SFCA is applied in this paper. Even though the results (E2SFCA-values) were finally calculated with a free ArcGIS add-in Download link: https://www.researchgate.net/publica-tion/261398233_USWFCA_An_ArcGIS_101102_Add-In_tool_to_compute_Enhanced_Two-Step_Floating_Catchment_Area_accessibility_scores , the underlying background process of this calculation will be summarised For further and more detailed explanations of the method see Luo and Qi (2009) . in the following outline. As the name of the method

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Nick Bailey, Joanna L. Stewart and Jon Minton

in 2004 and in 2015/2016, and hence the change in share. Using this score, LSOAs are grouped into neighbourhood poverty change quintiles within each city, from those with the largest decrease in their poverty share (1) through those where poverty was little changed (3) to those with the largest increases in poverty share (5). It is worth noting that this approach compares the distribution of poverty within the city at one point in time with its distribution at another point in time. It is measuring the relative distribution rather than absolute changes. It is not

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Adam Radzimski

( van Gent et al. 2009 ). Neither is there some common understanding on the criteria to be applied in delineating such areas. According to W. van Gent et al. (2009 : 55), deprived areas are places where place-based liveability issues (like vandalism, anti-social behaviour, crime etc.) are coupled with, and are assumed to be a source of, sustained economic deprivation. Multiple socio-economic variables and composite scores are used more frequently and are believed to be more appropriate measures of spatial disadvantage than simple income indicators ( Pawson & Herath