References Altman, E. (1968). Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis and the Prediction of Corporate Bankruptcy. The Journal of Finance, 23: 589-609. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6261.1968.tb00843.x. Altman, E. (2013). Predicting financial distress of companies: Revisiting the Z score and zeta models.in Edward Elgar Publishing (eds) Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Empirical Finance, 428-455.DOI:10.4337/9780857936097.00027 Argenti, J. (1976). Corporate planning and Corporate Collapse. Long Range Planning
Milka Elena Escalera Chávez and Cristóbal Hernández
The main purpose of this paper is to measure the impact that homophily, structural characteristics of the networks, number of citations of the alters and their Hirsch score have on the number of citations of an ego. I have chosen co-authorship networks as a subject of research because they have a great influence on knowledge and on the diffusion of ideas. The studied populations are represented by full-time academics affiliated to sociology departments in Romania, Poland and Slovenia. Ego-network analysis was used as research design. The data was analyzed using linear hierarchical regression. For all three populations the average number of citations of the alter has a considerable positive impact on the number of citations of the ego. Conversely, the Hirsch score of the alter has a negative impact on the number of citations of the ego. The data analyzed in this article claims that the assumptions about the positive impact of alter citations, network size and the betweenness score on the number of the authors citations are supported empirically.
Lena Lundgren, Catriona Wilkey, Deborah Chassler, Mikael Sandlund, Bengt-Åke Armelius, Kerstin Armelius and Jan Brännström
). Substance abuse with mental disorders: specialized public systems and integrated care. Health Affairs, 25(3), 648-658. Cacciola, J., Pecoraro, A., & Alterman, A. (2008). Development of ASI psychiatric severity cut-off scores to identify co-occurring psychiatric disorders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 77-92. Clark, H.W., Power, K., Le Fauve, C.E., & Lopez, E.I. (2008). Policy and practice implications of epidemiological surveys on co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse
(2): 97-108 Mattsson, T. (2005): I viljan att göra det normala. En kritisk studie av genusperspektivet i missbrukarvården (The will to do the normal - a critical study of the gender perspective in drug abuse treatment). Malmö: Égalité McGahan, P. & Griffith, J. & Parente, R. & McLellan, T. (1986): Composite scores from the Addiction Severity Index. Unpublished report. McLellan, T. & Kushner, H. & Metzger, D. & Peters, R. & Smith, I. & Grissom, G. & Pettinatti, H. & Argeriou, M. (1992
Torleif Halkjelsvik and Elisabet E. Storvoll
AIMS - To estimate the proportion of the Norwegian population that according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines should be followed up by primary health care, based on three levels of risk drinking. We also investigated the relationship between risky drinking and demographic variables (gender, age and education). MATERIALS & METHODS - In 2012 and 2013 Statistics Norway conducted 4048 telephone interviews on a random sample of the population aged 16-79 (55.3% response rate). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a screening instrument for primary health care, was used to identify potential problem drinking. We used descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. RESULTS - Approximately 17% of the sample scored within the WHO-recommended limits for simple advice and/or further monitoring. Of these, 2% scored above the limit for the two most serious risk categories. Risky drinking was most prevalent among men, especially those aged 16-50. Among women, there was most risky drinking in the 16-30 age group. The regression analysis showed that age, gender and education predicted AUDIT sum scores. CONCLUSION - A large proportion scored within the least serious risk group, where simple advice to cut down on alcohol is the recommended measure. This group mostly consisted of younger respondents (16-30 years), and a large majority were men (age categories 20 and older). These are individuals who do not necessarily have an alcohol problem, but are at increased risk for negative consequences such as injury during intoxication, and/or developing misuse or dependence over time.
Alessia Mammone, Francesco Fabi, Emanuela Colasante, Valeria Siciliano, Sabrina Molinaro, Ludwig Kraus and Carla Rossi
AIMS – New trends in drug consumption reveal increasing polydrug use. Epidemiological indicators in the current use are based on the prevalence and the associated potential harm of a single “main” substance. We propose new indicators to evaluate frequency and potential harm of poly-drug use. The indicators are used to compare drug use among countries based on survey data on adolescents’ substance use in 38 European countries. METHODS – The approach is based on analysis of the frequency of use in the various population samples: lifetime use, twelve months use or last thirty days, depending on available data, and on the risk of harm for the substances used. Two indicators are provided: the frequency of use score (FUS) by summing the frequency of use of each substance, and the polydrug use score (PDS) that weight all the substances used by their risk. RESULTS – The indicators FUS and PDS were calculated and the distribution functions were used to characterise substance use across ESPAD countries. The analysis shows important differences in poly-substance use severity among countries presenting similar prevention policies. CONCLUSIONS – Systematic analysis of substance use and the related risk are of paramount interest. The proposed indicators are designed to better monitor and understand consequences of polydrug use and to measure the resulting risk at country or population level. The indicators may also be used to assess the effects of policy interventions.
Håkan Källmén, Kristina Sinadinovic, Anne Berman and Peter Wennberg
Risky drinking of alcohol in Sweden: A randomized population survey comparing web- and paper-based self-reports
AIMS - This study compared data quality and response rates for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a web-based versus in a paper-and-pencil format survey. SETTING - Subjects were randomised to one of two parallel samples, one web-based and the other paper-based. Data were collected during 2009. RESULTS - The web-based format yielded a lower response rate compared to the paper version (26.2% vs. 53.6%), internal consistency was quite similar (0.82 vs. 0.77), while the mean AUDIT scores were higher in the web-based format for both men and women. Conclusions - Future studies should focus on methods for combining different administration methods in order to maximize response rates.
Ane-Marthe Solheim Skar, Stephen von Tetzchner, Claudine Clucas and Lorraine Sherr
The current mixed-method study investigates the effects of a culturally adapted version of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) with 135 mothers - 29 ethnic Pakistani mothers residing in Norway attending Urdu-language groups and a comparison group of 105 Norwegian mothers attending Norwegian-language groups. All mothers completed questionnaires on parenting and psychosocial health before and after participating in the ICDP programme. In-depth interviews with a subgroup of 12 ethnic Pakistani mothers and 8 ethnic Norwegian mothers were analysed using thematic analysis. Before the ICDP programme, the Urdu-speaking mothers spent more time with the child, scored higher on distant child management and reported poorer mental health. Most changes over time were similar but significant for the Norwegian-speaking group only, which might imply that the minority mothers were in the process of change. In the interviews, the Urdu-speaking mothers’ emphasized enhanced communication and regulation as well as enhanced family relationships and life quality, whereas the Norwegian-speaking group told about increased consciousness and empowerment, and a more positive focus
Edle Ravndal and Grethe Lauritzen
Substance abuse, anxiety and depression after 10 years: A prospective study of drug users in and outside OMT treatment AIMS - The national Opiate Maintenance Treatment (OMT) program in Norway started officially in 1998. The same year a treatment study was initiated, including the most used treatment measures for drug users in Norway. The main aim in the present study was to investigate the prevalence of live OMT patients in the total sample after 10 years, and to compare the outcome of primarily substance abuse, anxiety and depression among OMT patients versus non-OMT patients. DESIGN & METHODS - Four hundred and seven patients, in Oslo and the nearby regions, who started in 16 different in- and outpatients programs, were followed from intake to treatment and during ten years (1998-2009). Patients in the sample were interviewed after one, two, seven and ten years, and they were divided into three different treatment groups: inpatient residency for grown-ups, outpatient psychiatric youth teams and youths living in collectives. Data was collected through use of EuropASI and HSCL-25 at all follow-ups. RESULTS - After ten years 15 % were deceased. Of the 333 persons left, 73 % (n=248) were interviewed after ten years. Forty percent (n=99) were then in OMT. After ten years there were no gender differences regarding attendance to OMT, but the OMT-group was older (30 vs .28 yrs, p<0.05), and they used more benzodiazepines (p<0.000) and cannabis (p<0.01) than the others. The OMT-group reported to a larger extent more anxiety and depression throughout the total observation period than the non OMT participants. Use of heroin and criminality were significantly reduced in both groups. CONCLUSIONS - In spite of reduced use of heroin, the OMT patients seemed to have more difficulties in reducing the use of benzodiazepines and cannabis, whereas the anxiety and depression scores were high and stable through the total observation time.
Robert Edgren, Sari Castrén, Markus Jokela and Anne H. Salonen
AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking) by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822) were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484). The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2) was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74) for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56) for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26) for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23) for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12) for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24) for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39) for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34) for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.