). Panufnik, A. (1974). Impulse and Design in My Music. London: Boosey&Hawkes. Panufnik, A. (1976). Sinfonia di Sfere, score. London: Boosey&Hawkes. Panufnik, A. (1987). Composing Myself. London: Methuen. Panufnik o sobie (1990). M. Glińska (transl.). Warsaw: Niezależna Oficyna Wydawnicza. Panufnik. Autobiografia (2014). M. Glińska, B. Bolesławska-Lewandowska. Warsaw: Marginesy. Panufnik. Symphony No. 9 ‘Sinfonia di Speranza’, Bassoon Concerto, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Sir Andrzej Panufnik
The collection of statements by Zbigniew Bargielski (born in 1937) describing his own oeuvre consists of texts in various forms. These include: the composer’s commentaries on his works printed in concert programmes accompanying the world premieres of his compositions; short notes in the scores; occasional reviews of compositions; the rare interviews where an open discussion of problems related to his music inspired the composer to comment; and the composer’s personal notes from different periods of his artistic activity. Valuable reference material also includes speeches by Zbigniew Bargielski recorded on audio and video devices, e.g. event documentation.
Zbigniew Bargielski’s self-commentaries deal with various aspects of musical language: structure, morphology, syntax, phonology, expression and meaning - the latter mentioned specifically in the context of the artist-audience relationship.
Additionally, self-reflection includes the definition of aesthetic preferences and the composer’s artistic “worldview” which determines the choice of ideas and the means of their musical implementation. Moreover, Bargielski considers the possibility of a “transmission” - via musical gestures - of the sphere of his own experiences. In his notes from the recent months, he attempts to describe the transformations of his own musical language, which is of special importance considering the almost sixty-year-long period of his artistic work.
Witold Szalonek (1927-2001) did not limit himself in his artistic activity to composing instrumental, vocal and vocal-instrumental works. He was also very active as a pedagogue, music promotor and musicologist-theorist. His writings reflect the tendency (popular among composers in the 2nd half of the 20th century) to comment on the aesthetic phenomena of historical and contemporary music culture, with particular emphasis on his own works. His views on art and selfcommentaries are contained in published and unpublished articles and manifestos. With regard to character and function, the writings that he left behind can be divided into four categories. Among the nearly thirty texts, printed mostly in Poland, we can thus distinguish: 1) essays on general musical subjects, commenting on elements of the European musical heritage important for this composer and on inspirations from non-European cultures; 2) artistic manifestos, in which sonoristic concepts play a major role; 3) self-analyses and self-commentaries on selected works, which are of major value to performers interpreting his pioneering scores; 4) critical texts on current subjects and events, coming from the first years of Witold Szalonek’s artistic work, when he was active as a music critic.
Music is a universal force, a widely spread mean of communication on the entire planet, because it has a strong ability to influence human emotions, even without words (when referring to instrumental or symphonic music). Thus, music is one of the most challenging arts in ‘deciphering’ the hidden message of its creator. The present paper is focused on three analytical techniques which imposed themselves in the musicology field of the 20th century – structuralism, semiotics, narratology. Our purpose is to offer a general outlook on these perspectives and some specific principles of applicability when approaching a musical score, in terms of formal construction, sonorous structures, equivalence classes applied to musical elements, energetic potential of musical isotopes using modal verbs, essential aspects in determining the narrative frame (spatiality, temporality, actoriality). Structuralism, semiotics and narratology emerged as independent sciences successively, during half a century, influencing each other in a stimulating coexistence which enabled a wide scientific opening until present.
The folkloric character of the beginnings of jazz has been established by all researchers of American classical music. The African-Americans brought as slaves onto the territory of North America, the European émigrés tied to their own folkloric repertoire, the songs in the musical revues on Broadway turned national successes – can be considered the first three waves to have fundamentally influenced the history of jazz music. Preserving the classical and modern manner of improvisation and arrangement has not been a solution for authentic jazz musicians, permanently preoccupied with renewing their mode of expression. As it happened in the academic genres, the effect of experiments was mostly to draw the public away, as its capacity of understanding and empathizing with the new musical “products” (especially those in the “free” stylistic area) were discouraging. The areas which also had something original to say in the field of jazz remained the traditional, archaic cultures in Eastern Europe, Asia, the Orient. Compared to folkloric works from very distant areas, the musical culture of the Balkans bears the advantage of diversity, the ease of reception of melodies, rhythms and instrumental sonority. One of the most important architects of ethno-jazz is Anatoly Vapirov. A classically-trained musician, an author of concerts, stage music and soundtracks, a consummate connoisseur of the classical mode of improvisation as a saxophone and clarinet player, Anatoly Vapirov has dedicated decades of his life to researching the archaic musical culture of the Balkans, which he translated into the dual academic-jazz language, in the hypostases of predetermined scored works and of improvised works – either as a soloist, in combos or big bands. This study focuses on highlighting the language techniques, emphasizing the aesthetic-artistic qualities of the music signed Anatoly Vapirov.
Laura Otilia Vasiliu
Romanian composers’ interest in Greek mythology begins with Enescu’s peerless masterpiece – lyrical tragedy Oedipe (1921-1931). The realist-postromantic artistic concept is materialised in the insoluble link between text and music, in the original synthesis of the most expressive compositional means recorded in the tradition of the genre and the openness towards acutely modern elements of musical language. The Romanian opera composed in the knowledge of George Enescu’s score, which premiered in Bucharest in 1958, reflect an additional interest in mythological subject-matter in the poetic form of the ancient tragedies signed by Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles. Significant Romanian musical works written in the avant-garde period of 1960 to 1980 – Doru Popovici’s opera Prometeu, Aurel Stroe’s Oedipus at Colonus, Oresteia I – Agamemnon, Oresteia II – The Choephori, Oresteia III – The Eumenides, Pascal Bentoiu’s The Sacrifice of Iphigenia – to which titles of the contemporary art of the stage are added – Cornel Ţăranu’s Oreste & Oedip – propose new philosophical and artistic interpretations of the original myths. At the same time, the mentioned works represent reference points of the multiple and radical transformation of the opera genre in Romanian culture. Emphasising the epic character, a heightened chamber dimension and the alternative extrapolation of the elements in the syncretic complex, developing new modes of performance, of sonic and video transmission – are features of the new style of opera associated to the powerful and simple subject-matter of ancient tragedy. In this sense, radio opera The Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1968) is a significant step in the metamorphosis of the genre, its novel artistic value being confirmed by an important international distinction offered to composer Pascal Bentoiu – Prix Italia of the Italian Radio and Television Broadcasting Company in Rome. The poetic quality of the text quoted from the masterpiece of ancient theatre, Euripides’ Iphigenia in Aulis, the hymnic-oratory character of the music, the economy and expressive capacity of the compositional means configured in the relationship between voice, organ, percussion, electro-acoustic means – can be associated in interpreting the universal major theme: the necessity of virgin sacrifice in the process of durable construction.
A musical inspiration, Don Pasqule by Gaetano Donizetti offers a wealth of examples of how to capitalize on the vocal and musical potential offered by the opera show. We aim to analyze vocal scores - areas, duets, recitatives and vocal ensembles and to emphasize their musical achievement.
Loredana Viorica Iațeșen
By consulting monographies, musicological studies, specialty articles about the personality of romantic musician Hector Berlioz and implicitly linked to the relevance of his significant opera, one discovers researchers’ constant preoccupation for historical, stylistic, analytical, hermeneutical comments upon aspects related to established scores (the Fantastic, Harold in Italy symphonies, dramatic legend The Damnation of Faust, dramatic symphony Romeo and Juliet, the Requiem, etc.). Out of his compositions, it is remarkable that the cycle Les nuits d´été was rarely approached from a musicological point of view, despite the fact that it is an important opus, which inaugurates the genre of the orchestral lied at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of last century. In this study, we set out to compose as complete as possible an image of this work, both from an analytic-stylistic point of view by stressing the text-sound correspondences and, above all, from the perspective of its reception at a didactic level, by promoting the score in the framework of listening sessions commented upon as part of the discipline of the history of music. In what follows, I shall argue that the cycle of orchestral lieder Les nuits d´été by Hector Berlioz represents a work of equal importance to established opera.
References 1. Bentoiu, P. (1972). Hamlet , canto-piano score. Milano: Edizioni Suvini Zerboni. 2. Constantinescu, G. (1974). Hamlet by Pascal Bentoiu , in Journal Muzica , nr. 3/1974. Bucharest: Musical Publishing House. 3. Constantinescu, G. (1979). Cântecul lui Orfeu . Bucharest: Eminescu Publishing House. 4. Constantinescu, G. (2008). Splendorile operei . Dicționar de teatru liric . Bucharest: Didactic and Pedagogical Publishing House. 5. Cosma, M. (2001). Opera în România privită în context european. Bucharest: Musical
Loredana Viorica Iațeșen
In the diverse space of contemporary music, the fascinating and controversial personality of the Welsh composer Karl Jenkins, which is surprising from several perspectives, stands out. Open to assimilating and processing music from various sources (academic, liturgical, folk, entertainment, oriental, exotic), the all-round musician Karl Jenkins impresses the public with unexpected artistic choices, giving up the hypostasis of instrumentalist of the jazz-rock band Nucleus and of the group Softmachine in favour of the postmodern creator he has become today, synthetizing trends from musical compositions of the last decades of the 20th century. Once with the return to the functional system, either through minimalism or through neo-romanticism, the artist has successfully covered a potential sonority path of modern opposites, also evoking references to creative models of the past. We are referring to the musical valorizing of the sacred in a synthetic vision between tradition and innovation, in the works included in the Adiemus cycle, in the opus choir Missa for Peace and, more particularly, in the Requiem (2005), a significant score in the contemporaneity. The manner in which the composer, while resorting to a musical genre originating from the Roman Catholic cult and drawing on the liturgical text of the Mass for the dead, inserted Japanese poetry, written following the structure of haiku, belonging to representative authors - Gozan Koshigaya, Issho Kosughi, Hokusai Katsushika, Kaga-no-Chiyo, is highly surprising. This study aims to highlight the interweaving imagined by Karl Jenkins between the two cultures as well as to conduct a semantic analysis of an opus in which the relationships between music and words entail a highly emotional response.