Statist Software 2011; 45: 1-67.
18. Steiner PM, Cook DL. Matching and propensity scores. In: Little TD, editor. The Oxford handbook of quantitative methods. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
19. Hansen BB, Klopfer SO. Optimal full matching and related designs via network flows. J Computat Graph Statist 2006; 15: 609-627.
20. Crompton R. Class and stratification: an introduction to current debates. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004.
21. Kropivnik S, Luthar B. Class, cultural capital, and the mobile phone
Jan Grosek, Jurij Aleš Košir, Jerica Novak, Mirko Omejc, Aleš Tomažič and Gregor Norčič
suffer major defecation dysfunction due to nerve and sphincter damage combined with poor neorectal capacity ( 4 ). The term Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) was introduced to describe this complex range of symptoms and the LARS score (LARSS) was defined to assess the severity of complaints and its negative impact on the quality of life (QoL) of patients ( 4 ). These patients typically fall into one of two categories: those with faecal incontinence, frequency, and urgency, and those with constipation and feelings of incomplete emptying. Some report features of
Nurka Pranjic, Juan Manuel Garcia Gonzales and Ljiljana Cvejanov-Kezunović
- leave (days)
Legend: SD- standard deviation
2.2 Measuring Study Instruments
The survey study was conducted by WAI, which was used in the previous research and, on such occasions, adapted and translated into Spanish and South Slavic languages (Bosnian and Montenegrin) [14-17]. WAI measures seven aspects: current Work Ability (WA) compared with lifetime best; WA in relation to the physical and mental demands; current number of common chronic diseases; sick leave taken in the
an individual’s health status ( 8 ). When managing chronic conditions, such as CP, it is an important marker of the efficacy of clinical interventions. It is, however, a complex, hard-to-define term and controversies exist about its detailed definition and appropriate measuring tools ( 8 ).
Studies that examined HRQoL of children and adolescents with CP showed scores similar to aged-matched general population with the exceptions in social participation and motor functioning ( 5 , 6 , 9 , 10 ). In longitudinal studies, HRQoL in childhood correlated well with
Biljana Stern, Gregor Socan, Ksenija Rener-Sitar, Andreja Kukec and Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj
month prior to the scheduled neurological examination, and without chronic co-morbidity), were considered eligible for participating in the aforementioned research project and, consequently, in this study ( 20 ).
2.2 Study Instrument
2.2.1 Description of the SOC 13 Instrument
The SOC-13 is an instrument with 13 items, each being scored on a seven-point scale ( 6 ) ( Table 1 ). The values can be considered in the analysis with their original (original scoring) or reverse values (reverse scoring) ( 6 ) ( Table 1 ). The measure given by the SOC-13 instrument is a
Lisette Klok, Yvonne Engels, Carel Veldhoven and Danica Rotar Pavlič
, native Slovenian speaker.
Problems square ( Thoonsen et al. 2011 ( 18 )).
The open text content of each PC plan was quantified into a numeric score, the RADboud ANTicipatory (RADIANT) score, by one author (C.K.), using a score form ( Figure 2 ). The form was developed by researchers from the Radboud university medical centre based in the Netherlands, on the WHO definition of PC and Dutch palliative care guidelines ( 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ). The maximum score was 20 points.
Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Ellen Tveter Deilkås, Dag Hofoss and Gunnar Tschudi Bondevik
has been translated from English according to standard procedures ( 26 ). The SAQ-AV is a 62-item questionnaire where the respondents rate their agreement using a 5-point Likert scale: 1=disagree strongly, 2=disagree slightly, 3=neutral, 4=agree slightly, 5=agree strongly ( 27 ). “Not applicable” was included as a response category in all questions, and combined with missing values in the data analyses. The scores of negatively worded items were reversed, so that higher scores in the data set always indicated a more positive evaluation of the OOHC clinics’ patient
Sanela Slavkovic, Spela Golubovic, Matilda Vojnovic and Congor Nadj
EDSS score ( 24 ) 0–5.5.
Time from the diagnosis ranged from 1 to 26 years. A detailed overview of the demographic characteristics of the sample is shown in Table 1 .
Demographics of the study sample.
With a partner
With partner and child/ren
Alone with child/ren
Ana Cristina Ferrão, Paula Correia, Manuela Ferreira and Raquel P. F. Guiné
scale ranging from -2 to +2 was used, which can be interpreted as follows: [-2.0 ; -1.5] perceptions not at all compliant with a healthy diet; [-1.5 ; -0.5] perceptions not compliant with a healthy diet; [-0.5 ; 0.5] perceptions poorly compliant with a healthy diet; [0.5 ; 1.5] perceptions compliant with a healthy diet; [1.5 ; 2.0] perceptions fully compliant with a healthy diet. Then, an average of the scores obtained for all the items included in part II of the questionnaire was calculated.
2.2 Data Collection
A descriptive cross-sectional study on a non
Renata Vidaković, Stjepan Špalj, Mladen Šlaj, Martina Šlaj and Višnja Katić
sample is required if comparisons between indices have to be made, as opposed to the sample sizes presented in previous studies ( 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 15 ). Furthermore, none of the previous comparisons evaluated differences observed in indices’ scores or categories, nor tried to converse malocclusion severity score from one index to another.
The aims of this study were:
Evaluation of the correlation between the DAI and ICON indices employed,
Assessment of an orthodontic treatment need in schoolchildren population with the DAI and ICON indices, separately