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José M. Pratas, Anna Volossovitch and Ana I. Carita

Introduction In soccer, it has been demonstrated that performance of teams can be influenced by the scoreline ( Lago-Peñas, 2012 ; Gómez et al., 2013). Soccer players perform significantly less high-intensity activity when winning than when losing or when the score is tied ( Lago et al., 2010 ). It was also shown that teams had longer periods of possession in matches when they were losing than when they were winning (Lago-Peñas and Dellal, 2010; Lago-Peñas and Gomez-Lopez, 2014), teams played more in the attack and defensive zones when the score was level

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Bessem Mkaouer, Monèm Jemni, Helmi Chaabene, Samiha Amara, Ahmad Njah and Mokhtar Chtara

). Six international judges, including two judges for the difficulty scores (D) and four judges for the execution scores (E) evaluated the gymnasts’ technical performance according to the FIG’s code of points (FIG, 2009). Each gymnast was required to perform exactly the same routines in both competitions. Statistical Analysis Data are reported as means ± standard deviations and confidence intervals at the 95% level (95% CI). Effect size ( d ) was calculated using GPOWER software “Bonn FRG, Bonn University, Department of Psychology” ( Erdfelder et al., 1996 ). The

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Olyvia Donti, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Maria Kritikou, Anastasia Donti and Kalliopi Theodorakou

Introduction The relationship between the competition score and physical fitness variables in rhythmic gymnastics has been examined in a number of previous studies ( Bobo-Arce and Mendez-Rial, 2013 ; Hume et al., 1993 ; Rutkauskaite and Skarbalius, 2009 ). Anthropometric variables such as body composition, the arm span and mid-thigh circumference, have been suggested as significant determinants of the rhythmic gymnastics competition score ( Douda et al., 2008 ; Purenovic-Ivanovic and Popovic, 2014 ). Physical fitness variables such as flexibility

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Paweł Linek, Edward Saulicz, Andrzej Myśliwiec, Monika Wójtowicz and Tomasz Wolny

evaluating motor control through functional movement and dynamic coordination analysis ( Cook et al., 2006a , b ). The FMS has also been used as an injury prediction tool in competitive athletes. Recent studies have shown that athletes with an FMS score under 14 were more likely to sustain an injury than their peers who received more than 14 points ( Kiesel et al., 2007 , 2011 ; Chorba et al., 2010 ). Another study has shown that, regardless of the score obtained in the FMS test, asymmetry in movements pointed to a more than 2-fold higher risk of injury ( Kiesel et al

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Carlos Lago-Peñas and Alexandre Dellal

References Bate R. Football chance. Tactics and strategy. In: Science and Football V. Eds: Reilly T., Less A, Davies K. and Murphy W. 1988. London: E and FN Spon. 293-301. Bloomfield JR, Polman RCJ, O'Donoghue PG. Effects of score-line on team strategies in FA Premier League Soccer. J Sports Sci, 2005. 23: 192-193. Bloomfield JR, Polman, RCJ, O'Donoghue PG. Effects of score-line on intensity of play in midfield and forward players in the FA Premier League. J Sports Sci, 2005. 23

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Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Theodoros Pontidis, Alexandra Avloniti, Chariklia K. Deli, Diamanda Leontsini, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis D. Tsimeas, Lefteris Rafailakis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Peter Krustrup, Magni Mohr and Ioannis G. Fatouros

al., 2015 ). The speed of the test progresses gradually, and the 2x20-m shuttle runs are followed by an active 5-s recovery phase. It has been stated recently that the Yo-Yo IE2 test scores have a positive correlation with running performance and HR responses in competitive elite male and female soccer players ( Bradley et al., 2011 , 2014) and that the training-induced alterations in soccer-specific endurance capacity of elite male and female players during a competitive season affect performance during the test ( Bradley et al., 2014 ; Heisterberg et al., 2013

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Mariusz Nowak and Ryszard Panfil

Abstract

Purpose. Many studies analyzing the game of tennis overlook assessing such variables as the pure ability to play the game or the skill needed to take an opponent by surprise. This can be quantified in terms of a player’s shot flexibility, variability, velocity, or by the conscious or intuitive adaptability one can possess towards anticipating return shots, how best to hit the ball in order to keep it in play, as well as the buildup of delivering a shot or in scoring a point. The aim of the study was to identify the ability to score points in tennis based on an original set of assessment criteria that were used to measure the different effective plays against an opponent. This included measuring the variability, spatial flexibility and variability of shots taken, as well as the willingness to make risky plays. Methods. The study analyzed the match play of two elite tennis players, Roger Federer and Novak Djokovic, who competed against one another in the final of the 2007 US Open and the semi-final of 2008 Australian Open. Video recording of the two games was used to score and measure the proposed criteria. Results. The study found numerous quantitative and qualitative aspects that could assess the performance of the players. This included measuring the variety, spatial flexibility and variability of shots taken, as well as the willingness to make risky plays. Shot variety, flexibility and variability, as well as the amount of risk taken during game play, were quantifiable in nature. Taking into account the high sporting level of the players, the obtained results are undoubtedly of considerable educational value. Conclusion. The results allow for the conclusion that the teaching process in tennis demands the introduction of significant modifications aimed at the rationalization of technique and the introduction of criteria that can measure player effectiveness.

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Julen Castellano, Pedro Silva, Oidui Usabiaga and Daniel Barreira

player numbers involved in the task by measuring their length per width ratio. Other corroborative examples of a constraints-led approach applied to soccer SSGs can be found in studies that investigated manipulations of numerical relationships ( Silva et al., 2014c ; Travassos et al., 2014 ) as well as the type and number of scoring targets ( Travassos et al., 2014 ). With respect to this latter study, manipulations of the number of scoring targets from 2 to 6 in soccer SSGs elicited an increase in the distance between the teams’ centroids, promoting different spatial

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Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research

The Journal of Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw

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Jonas Rohleder and Tobias Vogt

, bias in judging performances ( Boen et al., 2008 ; Leskošek et al., 2010 , 2012; Plessner, 1999 ). After completing their performance, all gymnasts receive a final score (F-score) serving as evaluation of the performed routine. The F-score is determined and published by the judges panel and decides the ranking of the participants in gymnastics competitions. As a consequence of a fundamental revision of the CoP in 2005, to date the F-Score is calculated by the addition of two fundamental components comprising the score for the difficulty (D-score) and the score