C. Canali, K. Aristovich, L. Ceccarelli, L.B Larsen, Ø. G. Martinsen, A. Wolff, M. Dufva, J. Emnéus and A. Heiskanen
done using the customised algorithm developed by Aristovich et al. [ 36 ] for neural activity imaging. The reconstruction method used linear single step Gauss-Newton approach (time difference and weighted frequency difference) with a Zeroth order Tikhonov regularisation [ 43 ] and subsequent coefficient-of-variance representation (z-score) with respect to the background noise. The algorithm is based on the assumptions that the conductivity change is small and all pixels are equivalent in terms of noise contribution to the resulting conductivity image. Random Gaussian
Some studies have reported that BMI underestimates obesity in individuals with SCI [ 1 , 4 , 5 , 10 , 12 ]. This was also observed in the present study. Tetraplegic inactive group showed BMI˂25 kg/m 2 , which is considered normal, and fat percentage higher than 20%, indicating obesity. WHO reports that men with BMI≥30 kg/m 2 exhibit fat percentage ≥25%. However, this was not observed in this research, as in Jones et al (2003) study, that compared DXA with BMI in men with SCI and scored normal BMI results with high fat percentages. Buchholz and Bugaresti (2005
B. Tsai, H. Xue, E. Birgersson, S. Ollmar and U. Birgersson
anatomy 24 (3-4) (2002) 183-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-002-0034-5 10.1007/s00276-002-0034-5 Lee Y. Hwang K. Skin thickness of Korean adults Surgical and radiologic anatomy 24 3-4 2002 183 – 189 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-002-0034-5
27 Moore, M. Lunt, B. McManus, M. Anderson, A. Herrick, Seventeen-point dermal ultrasound scoring system - a reliable measure of skin thickness in patients with systemic sclerosis, Rheumatology 42 (12) (2003) 1559-1563. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keg435 12867579 10.1093/rheumatology/keg435
Michael Bodo, Richard Mahon, Alex Razumovsky, Efim Kouperberg, Michael Crimmins, Rocco Armonda and Martin Baruch
visually inspected and evaluated to ascertain physiological CBF reactions. To provide a qualitative comparison of each modality's reflection of CBF AR during each test, results were entered into a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel, Redmond, WA), where assessment scores of successful and failed tests were recorded ( Table 2 ). Artifactcontaminated data were not analyzed.
Summary of tests and responses by modalities: BH (breath holding); HV (hyperventilation); CO 2 (CO 2 inhalation); VAL: Valsalva maneuver; TREN (Trendelenburg position); R TREN (reverse
circle of the complex electrical impedance measurements, the dominant arm characteristic frequency was calculated.
Placement of electrodes and the BIS device.
T scores, z scores and BMD values were also estimated from DXA results. According to the WHO classification system, the participants were classified as normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic based on T and Z scores [ 3 ].
Hip and lumbar DXA BMD results were separately analyzed and were classified accordingly as normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic (T-score ≥ -1 normal, -1 > T-score > -2
Dindar S. Bari, Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy and Ørjan G. Martinsen
of felt pain strength is a key factor for successful pain management during surgery and other clinical procedures. Presently, most of the pain scoring systems used in clinical practice rely on patient cooperation and attentiveness. However, in some cases, for example in unconscious, confused, uncooperative patients, or in the case for infants, questioning is impossible. As a result, pain is usually poorly evaluated and inadequately managed. Therefore, a more practical, patient-independent method for this purpose is highly desirable. As pain provokes a sympathetic
Ollmar S Emtestam L Electrical impedance applied to noninvasive detection of irritation in skin Contact Dermatitis 1992 27 1 37 42 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb05195.x
18 Ollmar S, Nyren M, Nicander I, Emtestam L. Electrical impedance compared with other non-invasive bioengineering techniques and visual scoring for detection of irritation in human skin. Br J Dermatol 1994;130(1):29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1994.tb06878.x 8305313 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1994.tb06878.x
Ollmar S Nyren M Nicander
normal skin, as viewed by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy J Invest Dermatol 2001 116 846 852 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01337.x
4 T. L. Moore, M. Lunt, B. McManus, M. E. Anderson, A. L. Herrick. Seventeen-point dermal ultrasound scoring system-a reliable measure of skin thickness in patients with systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology 2003;42:1559-1563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keg435 10.1093/rheumatology/keg435 12867579 Moore T. L. Lunt M. McManus B. Anderson M. E. Herrick A. L. Seventeen-point dermal
ability of the test to correctly identify those patients without the disease. [ 36 ]
Eq. (2) A part of the ROC curve which shows the relation between sensitivity, specificity and the detection threshold.
The degree to which scores or ratings are identical [ 31 ]
Continuous: Bland-Altman plot Discrete: Percentage agreement
Closeness of agreement between the average value obtained from a large series of results of measurement and a true value [ 37 ].
Bias (i.e. the difference between the mean of the measurements and the true value
40 Lozano DL, Norman G, Knox D, et al. Where to B in dZ/dt. Psychophysiology 2007;44:113–19. Lozano DL Norman G Knox D Where to B in dZ/dt Psychophysiology 2007 44 113 19
41 Debski TT, Zhang Y, Jennings JR, et al. Stability of cardiac impedance measures: aortic valve opening (B point) detection and scoring. Biol Psychol 1993;36:63–74. 10.1016/0301-0511(93)90081-I 8218625 Debski TT Zhang Y Jennings JR Stability of cardiac impedance measures: aortic valve opening (B point) detection and scoring Biol Psychol 1993 36 63 74