Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (1995). Grammar and the spoken language. Applied Linguistics 16 (2), 141-158.
Cheshire, J. (1999). Spoken standard English. In T. Bex & R. J. Watts (Eds.), The Widening Debate (pp. 129-148). London Routledge.
Cho, Y., & Bridgeman, B. (2012). Relationship of TOEFL iBT® scores to academic performance: Some evidence from American universities. Language Testing, 29 (3), 421-442.
Cotton, F., & Conrow, F. (1998). An investigation of the predictive validity of IELTS amongst a group of international students at the University of
Chiaka I. Anumudu, Adewale Adebayo, Aanu Gboyega-Tokunbo, Henrietta Awobode and Raphael D. Isokpehi
Metacognition consists of knowledge of cognition (metacognitive knowledge) and regulation of cognition (metacognitive regulatory skills). The growing emphasis on student/learner-centered teaching at various educational levels including universities has led to recommendations for increased use of metacognitive strategies in traditional classrooms and online classrooms. This study examined metacognitive awareness among university students. The study population included 210 undergraduates and postgraduates studying biology or genetics among their regular courses in the university. Participants provided responses to the 52-item Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) instrument that captures self-assessed level of agreement to items assessing metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulatory skills. We conducted statistical analysis on the data collected. Mean self-assessed MAI scores was 79.9% (41.6/52), with metacognitive regulation scores of 80.1% (28.0/35) higher than metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive awareness tends to decrease with level of study. Metacognitive regulation associated significantly with level of study (p=0.0127) or level of study and field of biology together (p=0.005). Students think highly of their metacognitive awareness especially in the regulation of cognition and this self-belief tended to reduce with year of study. The results provide baseline for future studies and global comparisons.
Akhavein, J., W.S. Frame and L.J. White, “The difufusion of financial innovation; An excamination of adoption of small bussines credit scoring by large Banking organization”, The journal of bussines, 78(2), 2005, p.577-596.
Bugera. Vladimir, Hiroshi Konno ve Stanislav Uryasev, “Credit Cards Scoring With Quadratic Utility Function”, Risk Management and Financial Engineering Lab Center For Applied Optimization, University of Florida, January 15, 2002. p.2.
Chung, H. M., and Gray.P, “Special Section
Kingsley Okechukwu Dimuna and Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah
The objective of the study is to analytically assess the residents’ perception of planning of six housing estates and their satisfaction levels in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all residents of the six housing estates in Benin City as at 2018 which is the study period. The data were collected from the six (6) estates covered by this study: Oluku Housing Estate, EDPA Housing Estates Ugbowo, Federal Housing Estate, Oregbeni, Federal Housing Estate on Ikpoba Hill, Iyekogba Housing Estate, Ebo Village, and Andrew Wilson Housing Estate, Evbuoriaria. A total of 1200 copies of questionnaires were administered across the six housing estates. However, the total response rate of 1000 was achieved as only these copies of questionnaires were retrieved in usable format. Descriptive statistical tools such as means, standard deviations, kruskal-willis test and categorical regression analysis were utilized for the data analysis. The result showed that the relative satisfaction index scores for the all the estates are on the fairly satisfied region (RSI: 2.1-3.0) and this implies that residents are fairly satisfied with the estate planning conditions. The Kruskal-willis test confirms the absence of any significant differences in RSI scores across the estates while the categorical regression analysis results shows that estate planning has a positive effect on residents satisfaction and this is significant at 5% (p=0.003) which implies improvement in estate planning results in higher satisfaction levels. The study recommends the need for Government policy to encourage a decent living environment in terms of planning of estates.
Omawumi Doreen Osa-Omoregie and Roselyn Jummai Musa
The purpose of this study was to find out the level of the listening comprehension strategies that junior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State use in learning English Language. From a population of six thousand five hundred and thirty four (6534) Junior Secondary 3 students in public schools, a total of six hundred and sixty two (662) students constituted the sample size drawn through the stratified sampling and simple random techniques from six (6) sampled schools. Two instruments titled Listening Comprehension Proficiency Test (LCPT), developed by TOEFL and Listening Comprehension Strategy Questionnaire (LCSQ) adopted from Oxford (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) were used to collect the data for the study. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation). Results indicated that among the six strategy categories, Metacognitive (M=2.16, SD= .46), had the highest mean, followed by the Cognitive (M=1.97, SD= .34), Compensation (M=1.97, SD=.46), Social (M=1.95, SD=.47) and Memory (M=1.89, SD=.41). Affective (M=1.84, SD=.43) had the lowest mean. On the average, all the variables put together the findings from research question 2 indicates that the subjects had a mean score of 1.96 which is lower than the theoretical mean of 2.0. This indicates that students′ use of listening strategies is low. As a result, the study proposed that learners should be exposed to listening strategy instruction.
Ogutu Tobias Adera, Kochung Edwards Joash, Adoyo Peter Oracha and Matu Peter Maina
Learners in different countries are currently being taught language at their functioning level irrespective of grade levels. District Evaluation Tests in Kenya indicate that Class Three prelingually deaf learners are not being taught English at their functioning level. During the period 2010 - 2012, the learners obtained mean scores of 19.1-29.9%. However, the results did not show their functioning level in grammar to facilitate suitable intervention The purpose of the study was to assess the leaners′ functioning level in English grammar.. Theory of Syntax by Noam Chomsky was adapted and used. The study employed qualitative and evaluative research designs Study population consisted of 337 prelingually deaf learners and 65 English teachers. Multi-Stage and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 178 learners and 16 teachers respectively for the study Data was collected using a questionnaire and a test. The instruments were verified for validity. and tested for reliability. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and error analysis. None (0.0%) of the 178 learners obtained the criterion pass mark of 50%. The learners′ functioning level in English grammar was found to be at Class One level at the beginning of the school year. It was recommended that the learners be taught English grammar from Class One level at the beginning of the school year. The findings may be used by schools and the Ministry of Education for intervention.
Science teachers need an adequate understanding of the nature and processes of science as the basis for their pedagogical content knowledge for effective classroom delivery. The aim of the study was to find out in-service teachers’ views on the nature of science (NOS) and how their views compared with informed understanding of the NOS. The study adopted an exploratory case study methodology, qualitative in nature, and used convenience sampling. A questionnaire was administered to 50 in-service teachers doing a bachelor of science honours degree at a selected university in Zimbabwe. The students had done a course in history and philosophy of science where there were exposed to some topics on the NOS. Frequency counts and mean scores were used to describe views of the participants. Analysis involved comparing in-service teachers’ responses with experts’ views. The findings reveal that the students had a naïve understanding of NOS in 5 out of 16 statements from the administered questionnaire. Despite these observations the participants generally had a fair understanding of the NOS as evidenced by the fact that the participants managed to correctly respond to 69% of the questions asked. As such we infer that teaching and learning of nature of science as part of history and philosophy of science had a positive impact on in-service teachers’ views. The few instances when participants’ responses revealed contradictions, suggest that teaching and learning history and philosophy of science may not be adequate to develop a full understanding of nature of science. Further research is recommended with large samples, using a revised Views Of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire and interviews, and document analysis to reveal how nature of science is taught and learnt.
The study was set out to investigate the attitude of parents toward female-child secondary education in Sokoto State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study is a descriptive survey and made use of ex-post facto design. The researcher made use of purposive sampling technique to select 270 parents from the urban and 270 parents from the rural areas of Sokoto State. The researcher made use of an instrument adapted from that of Terhemba and Umaru 2015. The instrument is known as “Attitude of Parents Toward Female Child Secondary Education Questionnaire” (APTFCSEQ). The APTFCSEQ had a reliability coefficient of 0.81. The instrument had facial and content validity. It also had language appropriateness. The researcher used four (4) research Assistants to administer 540 copies of the questionnaire on the respondents. All the 540 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved showing 100 percent return rate. The data generated from the field were collated and the mean score analysis for the 15 items was carried out in order to provide answer to the research question raised in the study. 2.5 was chosen as the benchmark for either disagreeing or agreeing with each of the 15 items. The t-test statistics was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The investigation found out that parents in Sokoto State have shown unfavourable attitude toward female-child secondary education. It found out that there is no significant difference between parents in the urban and rural areas in their attitude toward female-child secondary education. This finding has shown that whether the parent is in urban or rural area, all of them have expressed their opinion in the same direction. One of the recommendations of the study is that parents in Sokoto State should show favourable attitude toward female-child secondary education.
Valeria Biasi, Luca Mallia, Paolo Russo, Francesca Menozzi, Rita Cerutti and Cristiano Violani
among American and Turkish college students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology , 22 (3), 418-428.
Derogatis, L.R. (1983). SCL-90-R Administration, Scoring & Procedures Manual-II . Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
Fisher, S. (1989). Homesickness, cognition and health . Psychology Press.
Fisher, S., Frazer, N., & Murray, K. (1984). The transition from home to boarding school: A diary-style analysis of the problems and worries of boarding school pupils. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 4, 211–221.
Fisher, S., & Hood, B