M. Hasby Saad, O. Safwat, D. El-Guindy, R. Raafat, D. Elgendy and E. Hasby
Idiopathic Parkinson’s (IP) is a neurodegenerative disease that is suspected to be due to exposure to infections during early life. Toxoplasmosishas been the only suspected parasitic infection in IP (Celik et al., 2010). Recently, some non-central nervous system bacterial and viral infections have been incriminated in IP (Çamcı & Oğuz, 2016). So in the current study, we tried to explore if the systemic infl ammatory reactions triggered by some helminths like Trichinella spiralis can induce Parkinsonian lesions in the brain, especially that the cerebral complications have been reported in 10-20% of Trichinella spiralis infected patients . An experimental study was designed to assess the neurodegenerative and biomolecular changes that may occur in Trichinella spiralis infected BALB/C mice in comparison to rotenone induced PD model and apparently healthy ones. The motor affection was significantly lesser in the Trichinella infected mice than the Parkinson’s model, but when the catalepsy score was calculated (through the grid and bar tests) it was found to be significantly higher in the infected mice than in the healthy ones. A significant increase in the blood advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP), IFN-γ, TGF-β, and brain DNA fragmentation was also detected in the Trichinella spiralis infected mice. After histopathological examination, a significant increase in the cortical apoptotic neurons and Lewy’s body were observed in the Trichinella infected and the rotenone induced Parkinson’s model sections. A significant decrease in the immunohistochemical expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the brain sections and the ELISA measured dopamine level in the brain homogenate was also reported in the infected mice group. This study findings may collectively suggest that the systemic inflammatory reactions and the oxidative stresses associated with some systemic helminthic infections like trichinellosis are possible to precipitate neurodegenerative lesions and biomolecular changes in the brain , and manifest with IPD later in life.
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B. Matos, V. Colella, A. M. Alho, D. Otranto, R. Doyle and L. Madeira de Carvalho
with the manufacturer’s instructions, and partial mitochondrial 12S rRNA (~330 bp) and nuclear 18S rRNA (~1700 bp) genes were amplified as previously described ( Latrofa et al ., 2015 ).
On physical examination the dog was bright, alert and responsive with a body condition score of 3/9. Her inspiratory effort was increased and an unproductive cough with terminal retch was noticed during the consultation, although there was no response on tracheal pinch. On thoracic auscultation, normal respiratory sounds were slightly exaggerated over the entire lung
A. C. Z. Machado, O. F. Dorigo, R. M. D. G Carneiro and J. V. De AraÚJo Filho
min) ( Cherry et al., 1997) .
DNA sequences were analyzed using BLASTn megablast ( http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi ) and deposited in GenBank (KP165404 and KP165405). The ITS1 sequences were aligned using CLUSTAL W (Tompson et al., 1997). Dendrogram was obtained by MEGA6.06 ( Tamura etal 2013) . Model with lowest BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) scores was considered to describe the substitution pattern. Then, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using Maximum Likelihood with Kimura 2-parameter model (Gamma distribution) and complete deletion
E. Binoti, M. C. Gomes, A. De Calais Junior, M. R. Werneck, I. V. F. Martins and J. N. Boeloni
, level of 0.05 were employed ( Ayres et al., 2007 ). The sample collections were conducted according to the System Authorization and Information on Biodiversity (SISBIO number 39329-1).
ETHIC: The ethics committee on animal use (CEUA) at the Federal University of Espirito Santo approved this study under protocol number 53/2015.
In retrospective study from total of 212 records 50.0 % turtles (106/212) were parasitized. According to the physical condition of the animals, the evaluation of body condition (body condition score poor, intermediate and good
A. Özer, Y. M. Kornyychuk, V. Yurakhno and T. Öztürk
based on Stern’s exact score limit, Mean I - Mean Intensity and Mean A - Mean Abundance with bootstrap 95 % Cl (Mean I, A), v/m – varlance-to-mean ratio of H. aduncum, SE – Standard Error
Prevalence (%) Cl
Mean I Cl
Mean A Cl
Summer (June – August) (20.4 – 26.1 °C)
Autumn (September – November) (15.2 – 21.4 °C)
twice, firstly to study phagocytosis of HEMA particles and secondly, the uptake of liposomes. Detailed protocols are described later. Peritoneal cells from pathogen-free ICR mice served as the naive control (N/0).
PEC isolated from mice on selected days p.i. in the first experiment were used also for preparation of cell smears. Following fixation in 70 % methanol in PBS (pH 6.8), cells were stained with May-Grünwald/Giemsa stains according to the standard protocol. Leukocyte differential counts were determined by scoring 500 cells on each slide