. & Martin, J.-L. (1991). Nestedness of insular avifauna: simple summary statistics masking complex species patterns. Ornis Fennica, 68, 178-192. Sparrius, L.B. (2004). Ammonia as a key factor for the composition of epiphytic lichen communities. The 5th Symposium Lichens in Focus, 16-21 August 2004, Tartu, Estonia. Stone, L. & Roberts, A. (1990). The checkerboard score and species distributions. Oecologia, 85, 74-79. Ulrich, W. & Almeida-Neto, M. (2012). On the meaning of nestedness: back to the basics. Ecography, 35(10), 865
Juozas Labokas and Birutė Karpavičienė
The aim of the study is to discuss and establish tentative guidelines for the original selection and evaluation of genetic sites for in situ conservation of medicinal and aromatic plant genetic resources in Lithuania and provide baseline recommendations for their management and monitoring. The methodology applied is largely based on the one used in crop wild relative conservation in situ. Three groups of criteria, including species, site and threat assessment, are used on a 5-point evaluation scale to evaluate genetic sites, with ‘5’ representing the highest quality or state and ‘1’ representing the lowest quality or state. Top ten criteria are selected out of more than twenty those discussed for the application in genetic site evaluation. Four of these pertain to target species: species number and cover abundance (20% weight), number of red-listed species (10%), number of cultivated/CWR species (10%), distinctive properties of populations (10%); two to site: area size (5%), protected area status (15%); and four to threat assessment: open site overgrowth with woody plant species (5%), mechanical damage of soil surface (5%), abundance of invasive non-native species (10%) and abundance of problematic native species (10%). Then, a weighted summing up is made to get an overall evaluation of a genetic site. For long-term conservation only sites scored not less than three points on average are recommended. An interpretation of final evaluation scores is also provided. Baseline recommendations for genetic site management focus on intervention measures, while those for monitoring – on periodicity of evaluation and some organizational aspects of implementation.
Patrick Chuks Ajieh
Yam minisett technology provides seed yams rapidly. It is designed to alleviate the problem of seed yams scarcity, which has been identified as a major constraint to increased yam production. This study examined the adoption of the technology by farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents. A sample size of 240 yam farmers participated in the study. Data were collected through the use of structured interview schedule. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing data generated by the study. Results of the study reveal that respondents had moderate awareness of yam minisett technology with an overall awareness percentage of 46%. The study also found an overall mean adoption score of 2.24, which indicates a general low adoption of the technology by the farmers. Application of minisett dust with adoption score of 2.05 was the least adopted yam minisett technology item, while cutting into minisett was the most adopted with adoption score of 2.79. The study found a significant relationship between some farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics and adoption of yam minisett technology. Recommendations of the study include that more awareness on the technology should be created among the farmers by the relevant agency through the use of extension campaigns, demonstrations and small plot adoption trials (SPAT). Also, farm credit should be granted to yam farmers through the State Government’s Micro Credit Scheme (SGMCS) to enhance their adoption of the technology.
Patricia D. Oulai, Lessoy T. Zoué and Sébastien L. Niamké
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata) that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05) at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%), proteins (0.36-12.03%), vitamin C (19.56-68.67%), carotenoids (18.91-55.48%) oxalates (3.58-21.39%) and phytates (10.51-68.02%). The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16%) of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05) of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g), magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g), potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g), iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g) and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g). All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population
Bosede Olukemi Lawal, Olukemi Titilola Ayoola and Subuola Bosede Fasoyiro
Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) (QPM) varieties have been developed by scientists at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training in Nigeria. For these varieties to have significant impact, they must possess traits acceptable to farmers. A study was carried out to evaluate the agronomic and sensory traits of two Quality Protein Maize - ART-98-SW-6-OB (QPM1) and ILE-1-OB (QPM2), in comparison with ART-96-SW-1 (High Protein Maize) and SUWAN-1-SR (a popularly grown improved variety) in three maize growing communities of South West, Nigeria. Sixty (60) farmers comprising males and females were evaluated for six sensory parameters. The parameters tested were appearance, colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The results of the agronomic evaluation showed that there were no significant differences in the height of QPM varieties and HPM at harvest. QPM varieties gave the highest grain yield of 2.38t/ha for ART-98-SW-6OB and 2.36t/ha for ILE-1-OB. Sensory evaluation showed that when the maize varieties were processed into corn-soy milk, QPM corn-soy milk had the highest sensory scores for all sensory parameters tested. Quality Protein Maize varieties had high grain yield and were most preferred for maize pudding and corn - soy milk. The QPM varieties, if formulated into foods for household or commercial purposes, should have good chance of being accepted by farmers with continuous promotional campaigns.
Vannaphone Putthana, Milan Marounek, Natalie Brenova, Jakub Mrazek and Daniela Lukesova
Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) has been isolated from a wide range of environmental and several food sources. Cronobacter spp. is an opportunistic pathogen causing serious infection in infants, particularly neonates. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize Cronobacter spp. from food sources (infant food, herbs and spices and vegetables) and from environmental sources as dust from vacuum cleaners. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. was performed on selective chromogenic agars, fi rstly using commercial ESIA agar and thereafter on Kim and Rhee-KR agar described in the literature. Phenotypic characteristics were obtained by commercial miniaturized biochemical ENTEROTEST 24 kits and the fi nal confi rmation of isolated strains was performed by molecular techniques (PCR, PCR - DGGE analysis, and 16S rDNA sequencing). Altogether, 99 samples were analyzed (47 samples of foods and 52 samples of dust). In total, 43 isolates of presumptive Cronobacter spp. were initially identifi ed, however, only 22 isolates (51%) were identifi ed as Cronobacter spp. with high identity scores (75-99%). The occurrence of presumptive cronobacters in environmental samples was signifi cantly higher than in samples of food (18 out of 52 vs. 4 out of 47; P = 0.003). No cronobacters were found in 17 samples of infant food, 3 isolates originated from herbs and spices, 1 isolate from spinach and 18 isolates from samples of dust (households, restaurants, dormitory rooms). It can be concluded that Cronobacter spp. is a ubiquitous pathogen contaminating food and environment. Cronobacter spp. could be well identifi ed by means of ENTERO24 test kits with high probability. Both phenotypic and genotypic methodology could be used for identifi cation of Cronobacter spp. and they can be combined for reliable identifi cation.
Lina Šiukštaitė, Jolanta Patamsytė and Donatas Žvingila
Šiukštaitė L., Patamsytė J., Žvingila D., 2013: Impact of genetic and demographic factors on the expansion potential of alien species Bunias orientalis in the suburbs of Vilnius [Genetinių ir demografinių veiksnių įtaka svetimkraštės rūšies Bunias orientalis vienos populiacijos plitimo galimybėms]. - Both. Lith., 19(2): 111-119. Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) is an alien and already naturalized plant species in Lithuania. Our purpose was to assess genetic diversity and age structure within single Belmontas population of B. orientalis, using RAPD, ISSR assays and herbchronology analysis. Three selected RAPD primers produced 58 scorable DNA bands, 53.33% of which were polymorphic. RAPD analysis identified 31 DNA markers. Six ISSR primers produced 113 reliable bands, but the level of polymorphism was slightly lower (38.1%) than RAPD. The 43 ISSR markers were identified. DNA markers were used for analysis of population genetic structure. AMOVA revealed significant genetic differentiation (ΦPT = 0.11) among subpopulations of B. orientalis located on both riversides of the Vilnia River. UPGMA cluster analysis did not reveal identical individuals in the group of studied plants, which indicate that spreading by seeds prevails in Belmontas population. Based on herbchronology analysis, young individuals dominate and provide good perspectives for population spreading.
Grace Zibah Rekwot, Anosike Francis Ugo and Oke-Egbodo Brenda Engo
): Effect of Post-Partum Body Condition Score on Fertility and Milk Yield of Friesian X Bunaji Dairy Cows. Journal of Animal Science Advances 6 (2): 1537-1542. Amogu U. (2009): Maximizing the animal production value addition chain in Nigeria. Invited presentation at Nigeria Institute of Animal science, Annual General Meeting, University of Calabar, July 28, 2009. Ayinde O.E., Muchiea M., Olatunjib G.B. (2011): Effect of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria: A Co-integration Model Approach Journal of Human Ecology 35
Andreas Frisch, Göran Thor, Kwang Hee Moon and Yoshihito Ohmura
Computational Molecular Biology. RECOMB 2009 , pp. 184–200. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5541. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Penn, O., Privman, E., Landan, G., Graur, D. & Pupko, T. 2010. An alignment confidence score capturing robustness to guide-tree uncertainty. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 1759–1767. Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. 2003. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylo-genetic inference under mixed models. Bioinforma 19: 1572–1574. Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary