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Gender Stereotyping of Political Candidates

An Experimental Study of Political Communication

Toril Aalberg and Anders Todal Jenssen


Electoral research has demonstrated how men and women sometimes have different political preferences. Men are typically thought to be more concerned about taxation, business policies, etc., while women care more about issues related to the welfare state. Thus, it seems obvious that stereotyping influences candidate evaluation with regard to issue competence. In this article, we investigate whether stereotyping also influences how the electorate views the communication skills of the candidates. We ask whether the gender of politicians affects the way citizens evaluate various aspects of the qualities of a political speech, and thus their support for political parties. The experiment used in this study is based on a pre- and post-stimuli questionnaire. Stimuli are videotapes of genuine political speeches (originally given by party leaders in October 2000) performed for the experiment by one female and one male actor. Our main finding is that the male “politician” was believed to be more knowledgeable, trustworthy and convincing than the female “politician” even though they presented the same speech verbatim. These differences in scores were the result of the male part of the audience consistently rating the female lower and the male higher than did the females in the audience. Among the female audience, the two politicians received almost identical scores on all traits. The candidate’s popularity and the popularity of the candidate’s party were also affected by the gender of the politician who performed the speech.

Open access

Steven Willemsen and Miklós Kiss

Press. Smith, Jeff. 1999. Movie Music as Moving Music: Emotion, Cognition and the Film Score. In Passionate Views: film, cognition and emotion, eds. C. Plantinga & G. M. Smith, 146-167. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Smith, Jeff. 2001. Popular Songs and Comic Allusions in Contemporary Cinema. In Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music, eds. P. Robertson Wojcik & A. Knight, 407-432. Durham: Duke University Press. Spelke, Elizabeth S. 1979. Exploring Audible and Visible Events in Infancy. In Perception and

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Youth as Producers

Digital Stories of Faith and Life

Birgit Hertzberg Kaare

læring omkring Computeren’, in Holm Sørensen, B. & Olesen, B.R. (red.) Børn i en digital kultur - forskningsperspektiver. København: Gads Forlag, pp. 147-161. Johansson, B. (2002) ‘Daddy is Second on the High Score List - Constructions of Childhood and Adulthood in Computer Contexts’, in Hauan, M.A. & Heggli, G. (ed.) Younger than Yesterday, Older than Tomorrow. Cultural Perspectives on Contemporary Childhood and Youth. Åbo (NFF Publications 11.) pp. 101-130. Johnsen, B.H. (1993) Konfirmasjon og erindring. Konfirmasjonens betydning i et

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Sounding the Media

An Interdisciplinary Review and Research Agenda for Digital Sound Studies

Klaus Bruhn Jensen

. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hargreaves, D. J., & North, A. C. (Eds.). (1997). The Social Psychology of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell. Hatten, R. S. (1994). Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Havelock, E. A. (1963). Preface to Plato. Oxford: Blackwell. Hawkins, S. (2002). Settling the Pop Score: Pop Texts and Identity Politics. Aldershot

Open access

Neil R. Smalheiser and Aaron M. Cohen

-dimensional space. The distance between any two PubMed articles can be calculated as a weighted sum of the pairwise similarity scores of the underlying features between each PubMed article. Then, the overall distance between a PubMed article and a training set will be some function of the weighted pairwise similarity scores (for each of the articles that make up the training set). Finally, articles can be classified as belonging to one or more categories (depending on the relative distance of an article to the positive vs. negative training sets) or similar articles can be

Open access

Christina Lioma, Birger Larsen and Peter Ingwersen

between quotes. Each of these 52 queries was assessed by 101 users. The scores in brackets in Table 1 show the average user agreement on the most popular user choice for each query, which we computed as the % of users (out of all 101 users) who agree on the most popular term dependence option for each query. For instance, the average agreement of 69% for “rain man” means that 70 out of 101 users (≈69%) selected the option “rain man”. The 52 train queries are sorted in Table 1 by decreasing user agreement. Table 1 Train queries used on the CrowdFlower

Open access

Toine Bogers and Vivien Petras

bibliographical metadata change the search performance? Answer : There is no significant difference when combining Core bibliographical metadata with CVs. Including Core bibliographical metadata in general achieves a better performance. Any real-world book search engine would always include the core bibliographic data in its documents. The NDCG@10 scores seem to bene t from adding the Core elements to other metadata elements. These differences are significant according to a two-tailed paired t -test ( t (1307) = 4.799, p < .0005, ES = 0.13, 95% CI [0.0083, 0

Open access

Xiao Hu

control of the mouse: “I don’t know what’s happening, why it spins so fast, I just use my mouse to drag left and right because I want to check out the paintings around, why it is so hard to control!” (participant 4). Other participants also complained about the automatic spinning feature of the panoramic function: “I feel quite dizzy that it spins all the time!” (participant 1) “Why can’t I stop if from spinning?” (participant 8) 4.3.2 Organization of information Another criterion with lower scores was “organization of information” where

Open access

Liang Hong, Mengqi Luo, Ruixue Wang, Peixin Lu, Wei Lu and Long Lu

characteristics. Christy et al. (2015) proposed two cluster-based outlier detection algorithms including distance-based outlier detection and cluster-based outlier detection. The main purpose of the algorithms was to remove outliers that are irrelevant or only weakly relevant to the analysis of health care data. Experimental evaluation based on the metrics of F-score and likelihood ratio shows that the cluster-based outlier detection method outperforms distance-based outlier detection method. Huang and Yao (2016) proposed a novel clustering approach for multidimensional

Open access

Eric Zheng, Yong Tan, Paulo Goes, Ramnath Chellappa, D.J. Wu, Michael Shaw, Olivia Sheng and Alok Gupta

mining, as well as a variety of econometric models to discover valuable information, which we have been doing during the past few decades. Take my research with a commercial bank as an example. What we found from the decision tree generated to explain the commercial loaning process for medium-sized companies is that the loan is based on the financial attribute and the risk level of the applicant. The numbers one to five represent the risk level perceived for the small- and medium-sized businesses, with the score one meaning the most secure and five meaning the riskiest