perhaps making the results more generalizable than would research on a single state or subdivision of a state. There is another significant way that the federal system has influence on the evolution of criminal justice responses in the country. In part due to what some critics perceive as overcriminalization in Congress’ enactment of scores of new federal criminal laws over the last few decades, Rachel E. Barkow, Federalism and Criminal Law: What the Feds can Learn from the States , 109 M ICH . L. R EV . 519, 524-27 (2011). the federal government now operates the
Bruce M. Owen
weeks after pleading guilty in a major federal fraud case, Amgen, the world’s largest biotechnology firm, scored a largely unnoticed coup on Capitol Hill: Lawmakers inserted a paragraph into the “fiscal cliff” bill that did not mention the company by name but strongly favored one of its drugs. The language buried in Section 632 of the law delays a set of Medicare price restraints on a class of drugs that includes Sensipar, a lucrative Amgen pill used by kidney dialysis patients. Eric Lipton & Kevin Sack, Fiscal Footnote: Big Senate Gift to Drug Maker , N.Y. T IMES
). The usefulness of the Sutherland Report does not lie in providing answers for the legitimacy problems of the WTO, as it seems to be giving the WTO a perfect score. However, it helps delineate some issues, and thus we can sketch a rough territory where the WTO needs improvements. The report did not adequately address the central issue of development in the WTO, in the form of the negotiating asymmetries for developing countries as well as the incomplete and fragmented understanding of development needs, coupled with a blind trust on the trade liberalization
Kozloff, Hugo ChÁvez: Oil, Politics and the Challenge to the US (2007). This is one of scores of texts on Chávez published since his election as Venezuelan President in 1999. The case involves the alleged failure of the Venezuelan authorities to honour gold mining concessions held by a Canadian parent company. It was not brought under the terms of NAFTA but instead under the 1998 BIT between the Government of Canada and the Government of Venezuela. In a long and often difficult appraisal, Occupying some 242 pp. the Tribunal eventually turns to the question of fair
Nicholas P. Zinos
is not exaggerating on this score regarding the English view of the sovereignty of Parliament. Blackstone notes in his Commentaries: The power and jurisdiction of Parliament, says Sir Edward Coke, is so transcendent and absolute, that it cannot be confined, either for causes or persons, within any bounds. And of this high court, he adds, it may be truly said, ‘Si antiquitatem , est vetustissima ; si dignitatem , est honoratissima ; si jurisdictionem , est capacissima’ . It hath sovereign and uncontrollable authority in the making, confirming, enlarging
Peter H. Huang
perceptions and profile, students’ L.S.A.T. scores (25th-75th percentile), and students’ undergraduate G.P.A.s (25th-75th percentile). Some aspirations that many law schools do not seem to pursue are to become places and spaces that are happier, more diverse, more inclusive, more quantitative, and more welcoming. Part II of this Article analyzes why teaching law students about happiness and mindfulness is a worthy goal. First, this part of the Article discusses law student discontent. Second, this part of the Article discusses what motivates law school applicants
Martin Ruf and Dirk Schindler
the Individual and Corporate Tax Systems: Taxing Business Income Once. US Government Printing Oflce, Washington. Wamser G., 2014. The Impact of Thin-Capitalization Rules on External Debt Usage - A Propensity Score Matching Approach. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 76, 764-781. Weichenrieder A.J. and Windischbauer H., 2008. Thin-Capitalization Rules and Company Responses: Experience from German Legislation. CESifo Working Paper Nr. 2456, Munich.
.S. Government Printing Oflce, Washington. Voget J. (2011), Relocation of headquarters and international taxation. Journal of Public Economics 95, 1067-1081. Wamser G. (2013), The Impact of Thin-Capitalization Rules on External Debt Usage - a Propensity Score Matching Approach. Oxford Bulletin of Economics & Statistics 76, 764-781. Zuckman G. (2013), The Missing Wealth of Nations: Are Europe and the U.S. Net Debtors or Net Creditors. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128, 1321-1364.
Ruud De Mooij, Shafik Hebous and Milena Hrdinkova
without offsetting measures would result in revenue loss. The High Council of Finance (2016) has considered the opportunities for a CIT rate cut in Belgium to either 25 or 20 percent. With a CIT revenue productivity of 0.1 percent of GDP and without the compensating measures, this would imply a static revenue loss of 0.9 and 1.4 percent of GDP, respectively. The revenue loss might be smaller, however, if dynamic scoring effects are considered, that is, the broadening of the tax base due to endogenous responses to the lower rate. Such effects— which may occur primarily
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
( Figure 7 ). A full analysis could be dedicated to this topic, since even the slightest variations in polite wordings may carry otherwise unexpressed sentiments of joy or anger. At the present stage, however, we have combined such expressions into compound n-grams without emotional value. Figure 7 Evolution of final salutations. Sentiment scores and their global distribution In textual statistics, simply measuring the proportion of lemmas associated with a specific sentiment is not enough. The FEEL lexicon associates more of its terms with positive