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Open access

Khalid Mahmood, Syeda Adila Batool, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhary and Zia Ul-Haq

Abstract

Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

Open access

Štefan Buday, Oľga Roháčiková and Ľubica Rumanovská

Abstract

Despite the fact that the agricultural land market in Slovakia has developed in recent years, the overwhelming part of agricultural land in Slovakia is utilized in the form of rent. Only a small part is managed by the landowners themselves. It is therefore necessary to create mechanisms that would make it easier for both beginners and experienced farmers to acquire land as a basic factor of production. It is also important to create conditions enabling agricultural land to continue to serve its purposes and be acquired by persons who are competent for the management of the land and will manage it in compliance with the criteria of good agricultural and environmental practice. Research and analysis of factors affecting the land market and the rental market with agricultural land will also play an important role in these directions. During the evaluated period 2007–2016, we analyzed 244,374 land plots of agricultural land in twelve districts of the Slovak Republic (hereinafter referred also as SR). In the twelve districts of Slovakia, from 2007 to 2016, the average market price agricultural land without a distinction of size categories showed a fluctuating trend. Higher values of the average market price of agricultural land were recorded in the first years of the reviewed period. The highest value of the average market price was recorded in 2008 and amounted to 2.76 €.m−2. During the monitored period, from 2007 to 2011, the average market price had always values exceeding 1 €.m−2. In the reviewed twelve districts of Slovakia during the monitored period, the sold area of agricultural land represented acreage of 100,574 ha. From this acreage, the largest share (58.41%) scored arable land followed by permanent grassland with a share of 40.92%. Orchards marked the 0.43% share of the total acreage and the smallest share (only 0.23%) of the total sales was represented by vineyards.