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Khalid Mahmood, Syeda Adila Batool, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhary and Zia Ul-Haq

Abstract

Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

Open access

Robert Ranosz

Abstract

This article is devoted to the determinants of interest rates on corporate bonds of mining enterprises. The study includes a comparison between the cost of foreign capital as resulting from the issue of debt instruments in different sectors of the economy in relation to the mining industry. The article also depicts the correlation between the rating scores published by the three largest rating agencies: S&P, Moody's, and Fitch. The test was based on simple statistical methods. The analysis performed indicated that there is a dependency between the factors listed and the amount of interest rates on corporate bonds of global mining enterprises. Most significant factors include the rating level and the period for which the given series of bonds was issued. Additionally, it is not without significance whether the given bond has additional options. Pursuant to the obtained results, is should be recognized that in order to reduce the interest rate on bonds, mining enterprises should pay particular attention to the rating and attempt to include additional options in issued bonds. Such additional options may comprise, for example, an ability to exchange bonds to shares or raw materials.

Open access

Štefan Buday, Oľga Roháčiková and Ľubica Rumanovská

Abstract

Despite the fact that the agricultural land market in Slovakia has developed in recent years, the overwhelming part of agricultural land in Slovakia is utilized in the form of rent. Only a small part is managed by the landowners themselves. It is therefore necessary to create mechanisms that would make it easier for both beginners and experienced farmers to acquire land as a basic factor of production. It is also important to create conditions enabling agricultural land to continue to serve its purposes and be acquired by persons who are competent for the management of the land and will manage it in compliance with the criteria of good agricultural and environmental practice. Research and analysis of factors affecting the land market and the rental market with agricultural land will also play an important role in these directions. During the evaluated period 2007–2016, we analyzed 244,374 land plots of agricultural land in twelve districts of the Slovak Republic (hereinafter referred also as SR). In the twelve districts of Slovakia, from 2007 to 2016, the average market price agricultural land without a distinction of size categories showed a fluctuating trend. Higher values of the average market price of agricultural land were recorded in the first years of the reviewed period. The highest value of the average market price was recorded in 2008 and amounted to 2.76 €.m−2. During the monitored period, from 2007 to 2011, the average market price had always values exceeding 1 €.m−2. In the reviewed twelve districts of Slovakia during the monitored period, the sold area of agricultural land represented acreage of 100,574 ha. From this acreage, the largest share (58.41%) scored arable land followed by permanent grassland with a share of 40.92%. Orchards marked the 0.43% share of the total acreage and the smallest share (only 0.23%) of the total sales was represented by vineyards.

Open access

Robert Ranosz

Abstract

This article describes one of the methods of estimating the cost of equity, namely the LEFAC method. The name of the method is an acronym of the names of individual financial categories: L - Liquidity, E - Earnings, F - Franchise, A - Assets, C - Capital. It is a scoring method similar to the way used by ING Financial Markets to estimate share prices. A review of literature shows that this method is not widely known and used by enterprises, but it has certain advantages which justify its use. Its main advantages include its easy use and the stability of the results obtained: the calculated cost of equity is never lower than the adopted risk-free rate. The method is particularly useful for companies (enterprises) not listed on stock exchanges. This article is divided into five parts: an introduction, the LEFAC method, the parameterization of the LEFAC method (P-LEFAC), an example calculation and a summary. The second part of this article characterises the LEFAC method. In the third part, the method is parameterized to obtain a function described by formula 22. The following section contains an example calculation for KGHM S.A. and also presents results which mining companies would achieve if they used the discussed method to calculate the cost of their equity. The calculations were performed for mining companies listed on the Warsaw Stocks Exchange and unlisted ones. This part of the article also contains a short comparison of results obtained using the CAPM method and the discussed model. The last section consists of a summary presenting final conclusions. The article ends in a list of the literature referred to.

Open access

Qiong Yang

Abstract

In recent years, the development of agricultural industry clusters is rapid in China. As a main producing area of bananas, the Hainan Ledong Industrial Cluster’s competitiveness is of great significance to the development of the whole banana industry in China. This paper first analyzed the cultivation of tropical banana and the market share of bananas in each region, and then analyzed the competitiveness of Ledong banana industry cluster through the GEM (Groundings- Enterprises- Markets) model. The results showed that the GEM model score was 456 points, and the domestic cluster competitiveness exceeded the average level. The “factor pair” socre suggested that the scores of the structure, strategy and competition of the enterprise were low, which restricted the development of Ledong banana industry cluster.

Open access

Ayse Sarimeseli and Mehmet Yuceer

Abstract

Effects of infrared power output and sample mass on drying behaviour, colour parameters, ascorbic acid degradation, rehydration characteristics and some sensory scores of spinach leaves were investigated. Within both of the range of the infrared power outputs, 300–500 W, and sample amounts, 15–60 g, moisture content of the leaves was reduced from 6.0 to 0.1±(0.01) kg water/kg dry base value. It was recorded that drying times of the spinach leaves varied between 3.5–10 min for constant sample amount, and 4–16.5 min for constant power output. Experimental drying data obtained were successfully investigated by using artificial neural network methodology. Some changes were recorded in the quality parameters of the dried leaves, and acceptable sensory scores for the dried leaves were observed in all of the experimental conditions.

Open access

A. H. Camara

Ze souboru vzorků obsahujících železo byly metodami Mössbauerovy spektroskopie a rtg difrakční analýzy získána data, na která byla aplikována faktorová analýza, díky níž bylo zjištěno, kolika faktory lze vysvětlit celkový rozptyl dat. Došlo tedy k vyčíslením faktorového skóre, k redukci počtu proměnných a vzniku faktorů, kterými byly nahrazeny původní proměnné. U Mössbauerovy spektroskopie se jedná o šest faktorů, kterým bylo přiřazeno šest původních proměnných a u rtg difrakční analýzy byly zjištěny tři faktory, kterým byly přiřazeny tři původní proměnné.

Open access

Iulian Lita and Tănase Stamule

Abstract

The following study is, in addition to a reassessment of literature and an analysis based on non-parametrical techniques based on linear programming. The analysis based on the Data Envelopment Analisys (DEA) technique will be used to see whether the model that we have used has a significant importance, if there are any substantial differences between the efficiency scores obtained or estimated through various methods. The theoretical part, based on the DEA technique will be analysed under the influence of both the works of Farell(1957), and also Charnes, Cooper, Rhodes(1978), Banker, Charnes, Cooper(1984) and other newer models. The dissolution of efficiency scores obtained through the CRS-DEA model has been studied for a long time into two different components: One is linked with the scale inefficiency and the other one represents the pure technical inefficiency. This dissolution can be done by using the CRS model with technology when not all the companies are operating at the optimum level, i.e. through the simultaneous application on the same set of data of the CRS and VRS models. In this study, the main non-parametrical Data Envelopment Analysis method is presented (Wu, Fan, Zhou, Zhou, 2012; Halkos, Tzeremes, 2009) and its application on a group of 42 companies (The headquarters of a top commercial bank in Romania - S.C. BRD GROUPE SOCIÉTÉ GÉNÉRALE ), based on the information gained in the years 2016-2017. This paper is original because it combines the already developed method with new techniques, in order to link together economic factors and operational research and leaves more room for future researches with the purpose of further assessing and changing the performance of every decisional unit under the influence of the environmental factors.

Open access

I. Holló, J. Csapó and G. Holló

Abstract

The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles) diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C), supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E), supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se). At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05) in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

Open access

O. Fadairo, G. Diósi, I. Mironescu and E. Máthé

Abstract

Variants of kokoro snack samples were produced by fortification of maize flour-Fibersol 2-whey protein blends at 1% each with functional ingredients (ginger, fenugreek, turmeric, spirulina, red paprika) and a final blend containing all the functional ingredients at 1% level each. The resultant kokoro snack samples produced were evaluated for proximate composition and sensory qualities. The results of proximate analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in moisture, protein, ash content, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, and energy values in all the blends of the kokoro snack sample and ranged from 51.20% to 36.80%, from 4.46% to 3.85%, from 1.15% to 0.98%, from 0.13% to 0.00%, from 4.93% to 3.94%, from 53.57% to 39.2, and from 232.30 kcal/100 g to 172.99 kcal/100 g respectively. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the sensory attributes of all kokoro samples in terms of appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The kokoro snack blend R 97:1:1:1 (Maize: Fibersol 2: Whey protein: Red paprika) was most preferred by the panellists, having the highest mean sensory score of 8.97. The results of the evaluation of the kokoro snack samples showed that an acceptable fortified bakery product based on kokoro can be produced by the addition of maize flour-Fibersol 2-whey protein blends to red paprika and ginger at 1% level of fortification. This will further encourage the cultivation and utilization of these spices in food formulation and hence provide health-promoting benefits to target consumers.