Helga Myrseth, Sigurd William Hystad, Reidar Säfvenbom and Olav Kjellevold Olsen
three years of training in a military academy. We hypothesized that three years of training in the academy will produce a positive increase in these skills over the three-year period. Second, we wanted to investigate whether the initial levels of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in cadets impact the development of military skills over time. We hypothesized that the cadets scoring high on adaptive perfectionism prior to training will show a greater positive development on military skills during the three years of training at the military academy. Third, we wanted
Helga Myrseth, Olav Kjellevold Olsen, Einar Kristian Borud and Leif Åge Strand
experience boredom, with differences among individuals ( Farmer and Sundberg 1986 ). The BPS-SF consists of two factors: lack of internal stimulation and lack of external stimulation. Respondents indicate on a seven-point Likert scale how well they agree (7) or disagree (1) to each of the 12 statements. The scoring of all items for the lack of internal stimulation subscale is reversed, so that high scores on both subscales indicate greater boredom (lack of external or internal stimulation). The BPS-SF has showed improved fit compared to the original BPS and has been found
Heidi Hirvasoja-Korkee, Leena Holopainen, Asko Tolvanen and Jukka Leskinen
In this study, the existence of reading difficulties (RD) among young adults and the relation between RD, cognitive abilities and length of service period were examined. The aim was to study the manifestation of reading difficulties with young adult males, the connection between different cognitive abilities and reading comprehension and decoding skills, and to determine whether the membership of different reading skills groups was related to the length of the service period, which is partly dependent on the scores of cognitive assessment in military service, Basic Test 1. The participants in this study (N=1399) were Finnish adolescents (mean age 20 years, sd .61) participating in compulsory military service. Every Finnish male citizen is obligated to undergo military service and because RD is more common in males than females, warfare becomes more technological and military training is increasingly based on written material that requires reading skills, it is very reasonable to study RD with persons in military service. Results showed that reading difficulties persist into adulthood, but some regional differences were found, and reading difficulties (especially decoding difficulties) had only a minor direct connection to the length of the service period.
social skills is what determines an individual’s ability to successfully influence others. A few studies have shown statistical associations between the PSI and the Big Five dimensions of personality. Ferris et al. (1999) found that Political skills were correlated to Extraversion ( r = 0.28, P < 0.01) and Conscientiousness ( r = 0.25, P < 0.01). These findings, however, were not connected to performance. Ahearn et al. (2004) found that a leader’s Political skill scores accounted for a significant increase in team performance variance beyond the factor of
The paper presents a new concept, Usability Monitoring, and applies it for situational awareness applications in military Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance systems (C4ISR). Usability Monitoring means taking measurements of technical Quality of Service (QoS) parameters in end systems and comparing them to target values of reference cases. The concept differs from QoS monitoring in the goal and in the placement of measurement points: In QoS monitoring the goal is to verify that the network provides the promised service quality in the user system - network interface. QoS monitoring does not capture the actual end user experience, which is influenced also by the end system, and therefore it does not directly correspond to the service quality that a user sees. Usability Monitoring has exactly this goal. The Observe-Orient-Decide-Act-Loop (OODA) is a decision making concept that is widely used in the network-centric approach and it emphasizes fast decision making. The presented model for Usability Monitoring is based on the OODA-loop. It includes QoS measurements not only in the Act-phase, i.e., can the user perform the actions s/he wants or are there delays and losses that make the system less usable, but also in the Observe-phase, i.e., does the user get the information s/he subscribes to, and in the Orient-phase, i.e., does the user get confusing information and cannot orient, and also the Decide-phase, i.e. is the user able to make right decisions based on the previous steps. The measured technical QoS parameters are connected to user experience by Mean of Score (MOS) functions that are obtained by usability tests.
A case study for partially evaluating the Usability Monitoring concept is from MNE5 MSA (Multinational Experimentation 5, Maritime Situational Awareness) Experimentation Event 3 that was conducted in partnership with the Navy Command Finland, Naval Warfare Centre of Sweden and NATO Allied Command Transformation (ACT) and the Singaporean Armed Forces (SAF) Future Systems Directorate. In the MNE5 MSA experimentation we were able to monitor end user experience, how the user sees the services and is able to work with the current tools and capabilities. In this article we describe how Usability Monitoring was addressed in the MNE5 MSA case study: meters for Usability Monitoring were selected and we investigated what aspects of usability affect the phases of the OODA-loop.
Ricardo G. Lugo, Stefan Sütterlin, Benjamin J. Knox, Øyvind Jøsok, Kirsi Helkala and Natalie Marie Lande
domain-specific abilities, resulting in considerable homogeneity on numerous measures.
Both trait and SSE scores were assessed. Trait self-efficacy was measured with the General Self-Efficacy Scale ( Scholz et al. 2002 ). The scale is composed of ten Likert-scale items with scores ranging from 1 to 4, with higher scores indicating higher trait self-efficacy. The scale has shown validity in several domains and across cultures ( Luszczynska et al. 2005 ) and has acceptable internal validity (α = 0.75–0.91). SSE was
The purpose of this article is to report a study aimed at systematic assessment of the functionality of commercially available software for the automatic generation of area cartograms. The issue of the wide choice of algorithms developed over the years for generating various types of surfaces has also been raised.
Cartograms (called also anamorphic maps) are constructed by changing the surface area of each spatial unit in step with the corresponding value of the mapped thematic variable (area cartogram) or changing accordingly the distance between the preselected focal point and other points on the map (distance cartogram). Depending on the shape of mapping units, the following three types of area cartograms can be distinguished:
proportional symbol cartograms were the original shapes of mapping units have been replaced with simple geometric shapes such as squares, rectangles or circles (for example, Dorling Circle Cartograms, square cartogram);
continuous regular cartograms where the shapes of areal units on the map resemble the actual shapes of the mapped units but their boundaries have been geometrized to consist of perpendicular sections;
continuous irregular cartograms where the shapes of areal units on the map resemble the actual shapes of the mapped units but unit boundaries are not straight lines.
Cartograms can also be constructed to preserve spatial contiguity (continuous cartograms) or not (noncontinuous cartograms), with the latter often preserving the underlying neighborhood relationships to some degree.
While constructing area cartogram, one needs to decide first the type of a surface to be developed, and therefore, the algorithm to be applied. The next step in map construction is the choice of software, where tool selection depends often on the predetermined type of the cartogram.
The study surveyed five programs for the construction of area cartograms – all available free of charge. Each of those software tools was used to generate area cartograms portraying data from the 2010 presidential election in Poland.
Two groups of area cartograms where generated for the purpose of this study: maps of the entire Poland by voivodships, showing the number of valid votes cast for the two presidential candidates in each voivodship, and maps of the Mazowieckie voivodship by county, portraying the number of valid votes cast for the individual candidates in each county.
The subsequent in-depth assessment of surveyed programs took into account eleven criteria including the number of cartogram types that might be developed using each program, availability of tools for the proper legend construction and display, possibility of supplementing the cartogram with complementary choropleth maps, the option for inserting map labels, the type of spatial data that can be used in the software (reference to points, lines, polygons) and so on.
The study has demonstrated that the tool included in the ArcGIS (Cartogram Utility for ArcGIS) best met the survey criteria scoring 9 points. The application Scape Toad placed second (7.5 pts.), while MapViewer 7 came third (6.25 pts.).
When generating cartograms in the available GIS programs, one should also pay attention to the visual qualities of the generated maps, and in particular, to the resemblance of shapes of spatial units on the map to the their actual geographic boundaries. Since the shape outlines obtained on the map vary depending on the underlying geodetic reference system, the best coordinate system for the mapped area should be selected. However, if such system cannot be used within a given cartogram generating tool, then the obtained cartogram should be exported and refined with some general software package for graphic editing.
Thomas Hol Fosse, Robert Buch, Reidar Säfvenbom and Monica Martinussen
Kuvaas, B., Buch, R., & Dysvik, A. (2014). Performance Management: Perceiving Goals as Invariable and Implications for Perceived Job Autonomy and Work Performance. . Human Resource Management, n/a(n/a). doi: 10.1002/hrm.21680
Martin, J. H., Montgomery, R. L., & Saphian, D. (2006). Personality, achievement test scores and high school percentile as predictors of academic performance across four years of coursework. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 424-431.
Martocchio, J., & Judge, T. A. (1997). Relationship between
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
( Figure 7 ). A full analysis could be dedicated to this topic, since even the slightest variations in polite wordings may carry otherwise unexpressed sentiments of joy or anger. At the present stage, however, we have combined such expressions into compound n-grams without emotional value.
Evolution of final salutations.
Sentiment scores and their global distribution
In textual statistics, simply measuring the proportion of lemmas associated with a specific sentiment is not enough. The FEEL lexicon associates more of its terms with positive
development. Countries with higher scores of ›government effectiveness‹ rank higher in the Human Development Index. The causality may run both ways.
Richer countries can afford a better trained civil service. With this caveat in mind, governance indicators can serve as a rough gauge for the quality of a country’s institutions and its development potential. Indeed the variation of institutions across former British colonies and – more generally – across the world, is remarkable. Figure 2 on the previous page shows the measures for ›government effectiveness‹ in 1996 (the