particular dyad generated reciprocal effects ( Salas et al., 2015 ; Kim and Choi, 2015 ; Whipple et al., 2015 ; Carter et al., 2017 ). The obtained responses from both actors in a dyad were then captured as averaged scores indicating the relational performance of upstream (supplier–manufacturer) and downstream (manufacturer–customer) dyads. To demonstrate the supply chain performance, we applied six opinion-based measures dealing with customer-focused performance. It allowed to capture the role of the market as the ultimate mechanism for determining supply
high scores (0.560 for cost leadership; and −0.571 for differentiation), while the strategy of diversification had a low score (−0.12).
The regression analysis was performed as a main statistical analysis. Coefficients are presented in Tab. 2 .
Tab. 2 Coefficients of the Anova regression analysis (with Open_Innovation as dependent variable)
M odel B
N on - standardised coefficient
S tandardised coefficient
product), which scored 31%, 27% and 26%, respectively. These results can be explained by the fact that submitting represents the lowest level of consumer empowerment, compared to other types of co-creation (as the company dictates the format that contributions must follow and also has full power to select which consumer contributions to adopt), while more consumers are seeking to receive a more active role in the creation of the products they consume. The almost equal distribution of opinions among these three types of co-creation can be explained by the fact that all
Austin, P. C. (2011). An introduction to propensity score methods for reducing the effects of confounding in observational studies. Multivariate Behavioral Research , 46 (3), 399-424.
Barney, J. B. (2001). Is the resource-based „view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes. Academy of Management Review , 26 (1), 41-56.
Borkowska-Niszczota, M. (2014). Ocena potencjału turystycznego obszarów przyrodniczo cennych województwa podlaskiego [Assessment of the tourism potential of the naturally valuable areas of
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a well-established, popular, and often used method for efficiency evaluation of units from all sector, both commercial and non-profit organisations, of any scale of operations. Network DEA models are a relatively recent approach used to examine the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) having an internal structure of sub-processes. The article presents the concept of DEA network models in estimating the efficiency of courier and messenger companies with relations to their business clients. The considerations are supported by an example of data concerning leaders from the sector of couriers and messengers in Poland and one of the biggest and most popular online stores. The results are compared with the traditional DEA approach. In addition, to measure reliability for DEA scores, the jackknife procedure was performed. The author proves the usefulness of network DEA as a research and management tool.
Firstly, the respondents rated the technology in terms of its innovativeness. Then, the respondents assessed the technology in terms of demand. The respondents also made a technology assessment in terms of socio-ethical aspects and usability. Then, average scores of technologies of personal care robots for older adults in terms of the innovation criterion, demand, socio-ethical aspects, usability and functionality were calculated based on individual data ( Fig. 1 ).
Collective assessment of the technology of personal care robots for older adults
. Precision, on the other hand, measures the ability of a model to generate the behaviour present in the event log. Similarly to fitness, the range of the precision function is the interval [0,1], where the value of precision equal to 1 means that any trace produced by the process model is found in the event log. Both quality dimensions can be combined into one index called the F-score, which is the harmonic mean of the two measures. For the purpose of this study, Markovian fitness and precision are used ( Augusto et al., 2019 ).
It is necessary that the used modelling
José Alberto Martínez González and Urszula Kobylińska
randomly among those with the greatest attendance of the students to the classrooms, so that the number of students in the sample of each of the courses was representative of the one that exists in the degree. The research was conducted in the first quarter of 2019.
Table 1 presents the data of the sample, formed of 721 respondents. The initial sample included 23 respondents who were excluded because they left items unanswered, or they gave all the items the same score. The size of the sample and that of the subsamples meets the minimum rule of being 10 times greater
, on a monotonic hierarchical fuzzy inference tool as an effective means to gather the judgements and scores against the key performance indicators (KPIs) of each sustainability perspective into an aggregated index. Chodakowska and Nazarko (2016) presented the concept of environmental efficiency analysis based on the DEA in the case of desirable and undesirable results and illustrated by a case study of European countries. This assessment tool could be useful for benchmarking studies. At the same time, Raifman et al. (2018) presented their model for healthcare