Brendan McSweeney, Donna Brown and Stravroula Iliopoulou
(unchanging); (4) shared; (5) coherent (contradiction-free); 4 See Smelser (1992) for a critique of the notion of a culture as coherent. (6) identifiable from answers to self-response questions; (7) depicable and rankable as ‘dimensions’ derived from the mean scores and ranking of those answers ( McSweeney, 2002a ; Taras and Steel, 2009 ).
Each of these postulates, the consequent exclusion of other possible cultural and non-cultural influences, and the neglect of sub-national differences and changes have all been extensively critiqued ( Duncan 1980 ; Bock 1999
The paper analyses the 2017 Big Ten West Division football cycle models recruiting. The top ten recruit scores [(Rivals.com * 100) + [100 (outside surrounding); 75 (surrounding)] + extra credit walk-ons (100; 75)] allow proper ranking: Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Northwestern, Illinois, Minnesota, and Purdue.
firm that does its best to enhance the financial well being of its stakeholders.’ These statements were evaluated with a seven-point scale (coded as 1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree), and after averaging the item values, higher composite scores suggested stronger beliefs that the organisation was socially responsible. The coefficient alpha of the measure was .85.
Positive work attitude. Two scales were also used to assess a positive work attitude. Job satisfaction was measured with three items ( Cammann et al., 1983; Rich, 1997 ) that were rated on a
The present study aimed to explore the work and organisational engagement levels of a particular sample of academics working in the Irish public sector. As shown in Table 1 , which presents the descriptive statistics for all the study variables, work engagement scores were relatively high with a mean of 4.07 and a standard deviation (SD) of 0.991. The UWES used in the present study measures how frequently employees feel engaged, and on this scale, this score is equivalent to academics feeling engaged in their work at least once a week ( Schaufeli and Bakker
of Management Studies. Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 347–357. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1985.tb00001.x .
17. Hofstede, G. (1994). The Business of International Business Is Culture // International Business Review. Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1–14. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0969-5931(94)90011-6 .
18. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Recent Consequences: Using Dimension Scores in Theory and Research // International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11–17. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147059580111002 .
different managers and line manages, it was expected that experiences in terms of preparation would vary accordingly.
Motivation to transfer is also influenced by choice in attending training ( Elangovan and Karakowsky, 1999 ). Gregoire et al. (1998) suggest trainees who volunteer for the training are more likely to view the content of the programme as relevant. In relation to recruitment for training, Hicks and Klimoski (1987), cited in Russ-Eft (2002) , found participants with a high degree of choice achieved higher test scores and reported more learning than those
proud to tell others I am part of my company. (4) I am extremely glad that I chose my company to work for over others, and (5) I really care about the fate of my company. Participants’ responses were collected using a five-point Likert-type scale with ‘1 = strongly disagree’ and ‘5 = strongly agree’ as anchors. This scale exhibited a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85. Data coding was done in such a way that a higher score indicated a higher level of affective commitment.
Normative commitment. We assessed normative commitment using four items from Allen and Meyer’s (1990
group. Examples items include ‘Contact people in high places for a job or position’ and ‘Influence the policies of your home Brigade/Formation’. The questionnaire was created with response options ranging from −2 (very much below average) to +2 (very much above average), so that a score of zero would indicate that the individual completing the questionnaire identified himself/herself as being ‘equal’ to the ‘average Lieutenant/Captain of the Defence Forces’ for that item. This scale was found to be reliable, reporting a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.879.
and job tenure ( Bender and Elliott, 2002 ). However, there remain substantial problems with this approach. A range of different results can be derived depending on the model specification and estimation technique used to measure pay differentials. For example, weighted or unweighted regression analyses may be used ( CSO, 2013 ), while more complex methodologies such as propensity score matching (PSM) and Blinder–Oaxaca (B–O) decompositions have also previously been utilised and may present divergent results. This is evident from Table 1 , which is discussed later
were affected by the recession were targeting women consumers in order to boost sales. Women are thought to drive the world economy ( Silverstein and Sayre, 2009 ).
If empowered, women could potentially become a powerful source for change in the Irish marketplace. The gender equality index shows that Ireland rates highly in the domains of ‘work’ and ‘money’ but scores significantly lower when it comes to ‘power’ ( CSO, 2013 ). Furthermore, unemployment trends during the financial crisis had shifted and male unemployment rates in Europe grew higher than the