omitted variable bias in the estimated effects of parental migration.
The results suggest that whether parental migration is beneficial or deleterious to child health depends on which parent moved. Migration of the mother has an adverse effect on child height-for-age, whereas migration of the father has no effect. This finding is important because of the long temporal reach of health in childhood; a plethora of empirical evidence shows that poorer health in early life leads to lower educational attainment ( Almond, 2006 ; Case et al., 2005 ), lower scores in high
Note: Luxembourg, Slovak Republic, Estonia, and Slovenia are not presented in the graph because data are not available at the beginning of the period.
Source : OECD. PMR, product market regulation.
In recent years, liberalization of the product market has slowed down in European countries. Between 1998 and 2003, the average PMR score fell by 0.46 compared to 0.26 between 2003 and 2008 and 0.14 between 2008 and 2013. The pace of reforms may have slowed down, because most countries have already reached a low level of regulation. The potential
empirical and theoretical findings by Rauch and Trindade (2002) and Rauch and Casella (2003) , the authors find weaker effects for entrepreneurs and business-class immigrants. The authors explain this result with the selection of immigrants in these classes. Business immigrants are admitted to Canada primarily because of capital (investors) or because they are artists (self-employed) and therefore do not bring trade knowledge or connections to Canada. Entrepreneur-class immigrants receive a 45-point (out of 70) bonus which may allow many to enter despite low scores on
years of education and educational degree, they found that foreign-acquired education is valued less than education acquired in Canada. In their recent study, Fortin et al. (2016) found that controlling for source of human capital helps to account for a large share of the immigrant–native-born wage gap. Li and Sweetman (2014) used international test scores as a proxy for the quality of source country educational outcomes and found that there is a strong and positive association between returns to prearrival schooling in the host country and the quality of
limits (and hence potentially weaker protection). The output of AI tools (for instance, creative works) are, so far, not protected. Similarly, individual data are not being protected (but rather are considered confidential), including against false information ( Scassa, 2018 ). This is a particular challenge when workers, customers, or debtors are shunned from market opportunities because of false information recorded in the databases on which AI algorithms base their assessment. Accounts of credit scoring systems shunning potential debtors from financial services
This paper focuses on the analysis of the characteristics of corporate governance in banks in Poland and Slovenia between 2005 and 2013. It studies the impact of corporate governance in these banks on their performance. The results of our research show that Slovenia achieved lower average scores for the variables and indicators related to the transparency of corporate governance than Poland. The density of banks with the highest corporate governance index scores was higher in Poland than in Slovenia. When examining the impact of corporate governance on bank performance as measured with net interest income, the regression analysis showed that its impact is positive in both countries and that it is statistically significant in Slovenia.
Marjeta Zorin Bukovšek, Borut Bratina and Polona Tominc
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/managers: Associations with scores on self-monitoring, Type A behavior, locus of control, and subjective well-being. Psychological reports , 80 (1), 255-272. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19184.108.40.206
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National (global) competitiveness became the central issue during the global crisis. Using the values of the three main subdimensions of the Global Competitiveness Index, we propose alternative DEA-based competitiveness indicators. In our approach, the index is nested in the more general measure of the competitiveness-given-performance indicator. We find that globally competitive European countries do not transform competitiveness into income per capita efficiently. Decomposition of the scores suggests that most of the relative inefficiency concentrates in innovation activity. The results proved robust against the CCR model used in previous research as well as principal component analysis.
The paper explores the association between economic competitiveness and inclusive development in 101 economies based on data provided by the 2018 World Economic Forum reports. Coefficients of ranks correlation and cluster analysis are used in this view. The values of Competitiveness Index and of Inclusive Development Index delivered by the 2018 World Economic Forum reports are considered. Economic competitiveness and inclusive development are positively associated in our sample of 101 economies and the correlation is stronger in the emerging countries as in the group of advanced economies. Among the advanced economies the mean scores of GCI and IDI are higher than in the group of emerging countries showing a better coordination of economic and institutional factors driving competitivity as well as inclusiveness. Countries belonging to a geographical region/continent/economic group are not grouped in the same cluster, emphasizing disparities among countries at regional/continental/economic group level. In the group of emerging economies, the disparities regarding competitivity and inclusiveness are lower than those among the advanced economies, the clusters are closer to one another and they are more homogeneous. Greater competitivity and economic performance can generate socioeconomic inequity that should be corrected through appropriate economic and social policy measures aimed to lead to wider distrbution of income and social inclusiveness.