This research conducted with the fully fresh, ripe and sound tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was collected then washed, peeled, seeds removed and transferred to the juice extractor. Sugar, preservatives were added to the extracted filtrated juice. Then the juice was heated, cooled and bottled for preservation. Tomato juice was prepared with three different treatments. Among the three treatments T1, T2 and T3 sample were prepared with no preservative, Na-benzoate preservative and potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) preservative respectively. The organoleptic observation of this tomato juice was studied for 60 days storage period. Chemical analysis and sensory tests were carried out during the 30 days at an interval of 15 days to assess the effect of chemical additives on the shelf life of tomato juice. Negligible Change in chemical constituents except vitamin C was observed in the prepared juice throughout the 30 days storage period. Color was gradually faded and slightly off flavor develops at the end of the storage periods. The treatment T2 secured highest score for color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability and ranked as “Like very much” by a taste testing panel. Tomato juice prepared with no preservative (T1) spoiled after 45 days storage and juice prepared with KMS preservative (T3) spoiled after 60 days storage. Total number of viable bacteria was highest in tomato juice treated with no preservative (T1) and KMS preservative (T3). Tomato juice with Na-benzoate preservative (T2) contained least viable bacteria which was better than T1 and T3 sample. Considering all the parameters, Na-benzoate tends to be better additives than potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) for preservation of tomato juice.
This study aimed to demonstrate efficiency of documented index method “universal water quality index-UWQI” to evaluate surface water quality and investigate seasonal and temporal changes, in the case of Gediz River Basin Turkey. UWQI expressed results relative to levels according to criteria specified in European legislation (75-440 EEC). The method produced a unitless number ranging from 1 to 100 and a higher number was indicator of better water quality. Water quality is classified into five classes and index scores between 95-100 represent excellent and lower than 24 represent poor quality. In the study, dissolved oxygen-DO, pH, mercury-Hg, cadmium-Cd, total phosphorus-TP, biochemical oxygen demand- BOD and nitrate nitrogen-NO3-N have been chosen as index determinants. Samples analyzed for these variables were collected from five stations on monthly basis along two years. Based on UWQI classification scheme, water quality at sampling stations had scores below 40 and assigned to “marginal” which is between fair and poor quality class. On the other hand sub-indices of water quality determinants showed seasonal differences for some parameters. Cd concentrations were higher in “high flow” and lower values were observed in “low flow” periods. This was explained by negative impact of urban runoff on water quality. On the other hand DO concentrations were higher in “high flow” period. Under “low flow” conditions water quality at upstream stations (where the industrial density is low) was comparably better than downstream part. The study showed that index approach can be efficient tool to: a) evaluate water quality, b) investigate spatial and seasonal variations and finally, c) extract required information from complex data sets that is understandable by non-technical people.
Aneta Spyra, Justyna Kubicka and Małgorzata Strzelec
Lithuania. Cent Eur J Biol. 2012;7:741-758. DOI: 10.2478/s11535-012-0052-1.
 Duran M. Monitoring water quality using benthic macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters of Behzat Stream in Turkey. Polish J Environ Stud. 2006;15(5):709-717. http://www.pjoes.com/abstracts/2006/Vol15/No05/05.html.
 Czerniawska-Kusza I. Comparing modified biological monitoring working party score system and several biological indices based on macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment. Limnologica. 2005;35:169-176. DOI: 10.1016/j.limno.2005