Simar, L. (2007): How to improve the performances of DEA/FDH estimators in the presence of noise? In: Journal of Productivity Analysis 28, 3, 183-201. 10.1007/s11123-007-0057-3
Simar L. 2007 How to improve the performances of DEA/FDH estimators in the presence of noise? In Journal of Productivity Analysis 28 3 183 201 10.1007/s11123-007-0057-3
Simar, L.; Wilson, P. W. (1998): Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores. How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models. In: Management Science 44, 1, 49-61.
Simar L. Wilson P
Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
well as qualitative features such as subjective sense of safety, aesthetic sensibility etc. ( Ewing et al. 2006 ; Bucksch & Schneider 2014). These indicators are often evaluated in the form of an index which is critical in terms of data reduction (the values of the individual features usually cannot be reconstructed from the final values of an index). There is weighting of individual characteristics (which is partly at the discretion of the researcher) and it often lacks spatial or socio-demographic differentiation ( Rohwer & Pötter 2002 ). Walk Score® has been
number of points are those in closer proximity to Riga. Therefore, 6 units have matched or surpassed all thresholds (8 points). Another 11 have matched or surpassed at least 6 thresholds.
Remaining 13 territorial units have a score of at least 4 points. Similarly, to the morphological approach, these mostly include territories that are located 30-60 kilometres from Riga. The results of this approach match the south-western borders of those determined in the 2017 study, whereas the eastern and northern parts differ significantly.
In this case there are 6 territorial
entanglements are particularly apparent in recent attempts to more clearly define what is truly a BRT system. In 2012, ITDP published ‘The BRT Standard’ to serve as both a scoring system and a planning tool, and provide a framework for system designers, decision-makers and the transport community to identify and implement top-quality services. The BRT Standard designates a BRT corridor as gold, silver, bronze or basic. Importantly, the designation committee is composed of representatives from all the various agencies outlined above as well as many of the transport advocates
technology base of Smart City components (sensors, communication, open data portal), Medellín is located in 5th position out of 7 ( McKinsey Global Institute 2018 : 10). In the ranking of applications (the software base), it is last among 7 Latin American cities ( McKinsey Global Institute 2018 : 12) but in terms of the last component: of citizen experience (awareness, usage and satisfaction), it scores best across all 7 cities ( McKinsey Global Institute 2018 : 91). This kind of result can really be considered a success, as, according to some researchers, a Smart City
Benny Geys, Friedrich Heinemann and Alexander Kalb
possible consequences in the discussion of results).
3 German Local Government Efficiency
Efficiency in the production of public services is one degree of freedom in local municipalities' policy agendas. Hence the measurement of efficiency in local public good provision provides a methodological basis from which to study the link between population size and cost pressures. Moreover, it allows a first look at the extent to which municipalities might be able to respond to adverse economic, fiscal or demographic shocks. Low efficiency scores for municipalities today
2004 ; Wulfhorst/Büttner/Ji 2017 ). Nachfolgend werden die methodentheoretischen Grundlagen vorgestellt, die der Entwicklung des neuen Erreichbarkeitsindexes zugrunde liegen.
Modelle für kombinierte Erreichbarkeitsindizes (z. B. Walk Score, walkability ) werden vornehmlich für die fußläufige Erreichbarkeit aufgebaut (vgl. Frank/Sallis/Saelens et al. 2010 ; Walk Score 2011 ; Dinkel 2014 ). Generell bezieht sich die Erreichbarkeitsdebatte vor allem auf städtische Räume ( Rode 2014 ). Erreichbarkeitsindizes können aber gerade in ländlichen Räumen als
other sources (e.g. annual reports of firms). In order to enable comparison across firms, the available information for every firm was standardized for each of its office locations to categorize their importance in a firm’s office network. Service values v ij were allocated on a scale from 0 (no presence of a firm in a city) to 5 (global headquarters of a firm in a city). The criteria applied to assess and score offices relate primarily to office size and extra-locational functions of the office(s). For example, all cities where a firm was present initially scored 2
Over the last decade, there has been a renaissance in the study of the connectivities and polycentricity of European cities in an age of economic prosperity and accelerating globalization ( Hall/Pain 2006 ; Taylor/Ni/Derudder et al. 2011 ). In these extant studies as well as in others (for example Hoyler/Freytag/Mager 2008 ; Derudder/Taylor/Ni et al. 2010 ), German cities, especially those associated with the Rhine hinterland, Ruhr and Main, have displayed relatively mediocre connectivity scores in relation to other European and global
with (a ≠i).
Changes in connectivity from 2002 to 2009 (and in professions from 1997 to 2007) are measured by the change in the importance of an individual metropolitan region in the network of metropolitan regions. The importance is measured by the percentage share each metropolitan region shows in the overall network at different points in time. In a second step, z-scores of the percentage change are calculated. This is carried out to show whether the change in importance (CI) is big or small. CI values between − 1 and 1 can be understood as a small change, CI