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used to assess the oedometric tangent stiffness modulus (on primary consolidation line), at a given reference stress, but also the pre-consolidation pressure. It is usually recommended to verify the preconsolidation pressure using in situ tests such as seismic cone penetration test (SCPTU) or seismic dilatometer test (SDMT). This combination of laboratory and in situ tests is the key to obtaining high-quality predictions when analysing complex practical problems. One should also mention that all samples tested in the triaxial apparatus should be overconsolidated and
Łukasz Herezy, Dariusz Janik and Krzysztof Skrzypkowski
involve the human factor, in terms of shield setting quality. In some cases, powered roof supports set by section engineers fail to reach the initial load-bearing capacity [ 16 , 17 , 19 , 21 ]. As regards the investigated longwall, the powered roof support was manually controlled by section engineers, alongside automatic control systems. When automatic control is implemented, powered roof support units are arranged in the saw tooth configuration with respect to the longwall face, when manually controlled, the powered roof support were in a linear arrangement ( Fig 4