’t waste any time in mourning. Organize,” which we may understand as “You’re still alive, so after you mourn, go back to organizing.” I am grateful to Janet Baumgold-Land for clarification of this point. In a twist on Benjamin’s observation, Joe Hill minimized the significance of his own death, thus posing himself as the ancestor whose about-to-be past life spurs us to continue fighting. But what sort of Jewish rhetoric could be appropriate to a short-lived period of discontinuous human degradation with no possibility of long-term transmission? In other words, when may
their founding and the nature of the Jewish contexts of which they were a part, (2) their courses and programmes, and (3) the fundamental inspiration behind them.
Both schools closed prematurely, but for different reasons. And both enjoyed a new life in North America, exercising a joint influence on a figure who, in the last decades of the nineteenth century, was one of the promoters of the conservative movement within Judaism. I am referring to Sabato Morais, who, though from Livorno, had ties with the Jewish community of Padua and was familiar with Central
regardless of the impossibility of access that would undermine the true transcendence qualityof the divine, the castle or law exists and even the life away from it remains shaped by realization of its existence.
Most assuredly, these twentieth-century Jewish philosophers resisted secularization, but the concept had never been an enduring and particular attractive choice to Jewish scholars and philosophers. In the debates over emancipation and assimilation, secularization had threatened to undermine any sense of a particular Jewish culture. During the last decades of the
The centrality of the Oral Law (OL), or the תורה ש בעל פה, for traditional Jewish life cannot be overestimated. After all, the OL was the focus of studies in yeshivot throughout Jewish history and determined the precise application of the Written Law (WL), the תורה שבכתב. A brief anecdote in BT Shabbat (31a) reveals this concept’s centrality:
Our Rabbis taught: A certain heathen once came before Shammai and asked him: ‘How many Toroth have you?’ ‘Two,’ he replied: ‘the Written Torah and the Oral Torah.’ ‘I believe you with respect to the