Cigáni (“Gypsies” as We-Group), On the imagery of “We-Group” and “They-Group” and an extensive discussion on primordialism in ethnicity and identity in the Slovak context, see the article by Viera Bacova (1998, 29–43). considering them to be ethnically or even racially different groups of humankind with specific qualities embedded in every member of each respective group. In their understanding, the World into which they were born and have to live their Gypsy life was determined by predefined hierarchical asymmetries and settings of power disbalance in favor of non
with the problems of the Russian diaspora in the former Soviet Union.
The aim of this paper was to find out how the ethnic identity of Russians residing in Kazakhstan has changed since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. What qualities and characteristics distinguish ethnic Russians in Kazakhstan? What are the main factors shaping their identity? To what extent Russians see aligned with their homeland and with the mainstream Kazakh society. What is the role of Russia in promoting a sense of attachment to the homeland?
The previous works that examined the
share the dual aspects of being a political system and a way oflife, and thus, can be consolidated as “pragmatic Confucian democracy.” The term essentially means a continual negotiation between democratic practices and Confucian values and moral sentiments ( Kim 2017 ). Another attempt to better grasp the topic is analyzing the old texts of Mou Zongsan (1909-1995) and Tang Junyi (1901-1978), arguably among the most productive Confucian philosophers of the 20th century, on the relationship between democracy and Confucianism ( Fröhlich 2010 ).
This study approaches
]). Thus, the last reliable detailed data on the language structure of the Ukraine’s population is as of 2001. Still there are reservations as to the qualityof identifying the notion mother tongue ( ridna mova ) ( Arel 2002 ). More recent data appears in some sociological studies, but they are less detailed than the population census results.
Although the population of Ukraine mainly speaks Ukrainian and Russian, its language composition is quite diverse. Information on the distribution of Ukraine’s population by the native language, based on the results of the all
themselves as French, German, British, or Belgian. This paradigm shift coincided with the movement that Muslims launched to acquire equal rights with their fellow citizens of European origin. Protests against all forms of discrimination – ethnic, racial, and religious – marked the struggle for civil equality. In 1983, for instance, a million-strong march – organized by SOS Racism –took place in Paris; the majority of the protestors were Muslims ( Singer 1998 ). They demanded full access to the political, economic, and social aspects oflife in their new homeland
respondents answered in the affirmative and 43% in the negative. 46% of respondents believe that the October Revolution was in the interest of the Russian society, while 46% are of the opposite opinion. There is a growing number of people sympathizing, on the one hand, with Lenin, Stalin, and Dzierzynski, and on the other hand, with Nicholas II and admiral Kolchak (one of the leaders of the White movement during the Civil war) (WCIOM, 2017). This divergence of opinions is due to many factors. Indeed, on the one hand, many elderly people are nostalgic about life in the late
organization, which played a very significant role in the course of the denationalization of Bessarabian Romanians. Russification was undoubtedly facilitated by the Orthodox faith shared with the Russians. However, the very low literacy level, especially in rural areas, also enabled the survival of the Romanian colloquial language in subsequent generations. The theological seminary founded on January 13, 1813, in Chişinău by the Metropolitan, Gavrilo Bănulescu-Bodoni, played a very important role in the spiritual and cultural lifeof Bessarabia. Here, education in Romanian
relied mainly on the qualityof students, not the teachers. In fact, teaching was based on memorization and indoctrination; however, the secret of the success of the college was due to the diligence and intelligence of its students.
The Palestinian scholar Amin Hāfez ad-Dajāni argued as follows:
The aim of this curriculum was to obliterate the Arab national identity and educate this generation about the Western civilization, English Literature and culture, disregarding the history, geography of the Arab countries and their literature and heritage, in order to make
. 2015. “Religious Fundamentalism and Hostility against Out-groups: A Comparison of Muslims and Christians in Western Europe.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (1): 33-57. 10.1080/1369183X.2014.935307 Koopmans Ruud. 2015 “Religious Fundamentalism and Hostility against Out-groups: A Comparison of Muslims and Christians in Western Europe.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 1 33 57
Latcheva, Rossalina. 2014. Measuring National Identity. In Encyclopedia ofQualityofLife and Well-Being Research edited by Alex C. Michalos, 3941
ordinary times, constitute only one of the several layers of identity that influence everyday life. Constructivism considers the real world, including values ascribed to social facts, to be a result of social creation. This system of constructions is reconstructed through a constitutive relationship among the discourse, everyday practice, and structure. Hence, there is not a statement concerning reality but only our constructed views on its character ( Hendl 2005 , 91).
Group identity is often treated as a natural entity outside the range of individual influence. While