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Ray Sin-Ngai Ng

1 Background and technical aspects of PET-CT Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) is the fusion of functional and anatomic scan that acquired almost simultaneously. It helps us to visualize the form and activity of potential diseases within the body. It is now a popular nuclear imaging modality for the evaluation of cancer, fever or inflammation of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis sometimes includes the rheumatic disorders. It is based on the fact that the glucose transporters are up regulated on cell membrane secondary to

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Jan Jamsek, Ivana Zagar, Simona Gaberscek and Marko Grmek

References 1. Jin J, McHenry CR. Thyroid incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Meta 2012; 26: 83-96. 2. Bertagna F, Treglia G, Piccardo A, Giubbini R. Diagnostic and clinical significance of F-18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: 3866-75. 3. Treglia G, Muoio B, Giovanella L, Salvatori M. The role of positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in thyroid tumours: an overview. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2012; 270: 1783

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Giorgio Treglia, Silvia Taralli, Marco Salsano, Barbara Muoio, Ramin Sadeghi and Luca Giovanella

nodules. Clin Nucl Med 2002; 27: 628-32. 6. Tatlidil R, Jadvar H, Bading JR, Conti PS. Incidental colonic fluorodeoxyglucose uptake: correlation with colonoscopic and histopathologic findings. Radiology 2002; 224: 783-87. 7. Chen YK, Kao CH, Liao AC, Shen YY, Su CT. Colorectal cancer screening in asymptomatic adults: the role of FDG PET scan. Anticancer Res 2003; 23: 4357-61. 8. Pandit-Taskar N, Schöder H, Gonen M, Larson SM, Yeung HW. Clinical significance of unexplained abnormal focal FDG uptake in the abdomen

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Iman Avazpour, Ros Roslan, Peyman Bayat, M. Saripan, Abdul Nordin and Raja Abdullah

References Shetty C, Lakhkar B, Gangadhar V, Ramachandran N. Changing pattern of bronchogenic carcinoma: a statistical variation or a reality? Indian J Radiol Imaging 2005; 15: 233-8. De Wever W, Stroobants S, Coolen J, Verschakelen JA. Integrated PET/CT in the staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer: technical aspects and clinical integration. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 201-12. Kovac V, Smrdel U. Meta-analyses of clinical trials in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

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Ji Chen, Yong Zhao, Xin Li, Peng Sun, Muwen Wang, Ridong Wang and Xunbo Jin

PET intensity markers approach. Radiol Oncol 2009; 43 : 180-6. Rojnik M, Jevnikar Z, Mirkovic B, Janes D, Zidar N, Kikelj D, et al. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines. Radiol Oncol 2011; 45 : 259-66. Ben-Haim S, Ell P. 18f-FDG PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of cancer treatment response. J Nucl Med 2009; 50 : 88-99. Farsad M, Schiavina R, Franceschelli A, Sanguedolce F, Castellucci P, Bertaccini A, et al. Positron emission

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Mario Ciliberto, Fabio Maggi, Giorgio Treglia, Federico Padovano, Lucio Calandriello, Alessandro Giordano and Lorenzo Bonomo

References 1. Hodolic M. Role of F-18-choline PET/CT in evaluation of patients with prostate carcinoma. Radiol Oncol 2011; 45: 17-21. 2. Basu S, Alavi A. Unparalleled contribution of 18F-FDG PET to medicine over 3 decades. J Nucl Med 2008; 49: 17N-21N, 37N. 3. Wang X, Xu M, Liang H, Xu LS. Comparison of CT and MRI in diagnosis of cerebrospinal leak induced by multiple fractures of skull base. Radiol Oncol 2011; 45 : 91-6 . 4. Schmidt GP, Reiser MF, Baur-Melnyk A. Whole-body MRI

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Marina Hodolic

References Reske SN. Nuclear imaging of prostate cancer: current status. Urologe A 2007; 46 : 1485-99. Kragelj B. Increased late urinary toxicity with whole pelvic radiotherapy after prostatectomy. Radiol Oncol 2009; 43 : 88-96. Avazpour I, Roslan RE, Bayat P, Saripan MI, Nordin AJ, Abdullah RSAR. Segmenting CT images of bronchogenic carcinoma with bone metastases using PET intensity markers approach. Radiol Oncol 2009; 43 : 180-6. Naji M, Hodolic

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Bengul Gunalp, Ali Ozan Oner, Semra Ince, Engin Alagoz, Aslı Ayan and Nuri Arslan

metastases in patients with metastatic breast cancer: morphologic and metabolic monitoring of response to systemic therapy with integrated PET/CT. Radiology 2008; 247: 189-96. 4. Bellamy EA, Nicholas D, Ward M, Coombes RC, Powles TJ, Husband JE. Comparison of computed tomography and conventional radiology in the assessment of treatment response of lytic bony metastases in patients with carcinoma of the breast. Clin Radiol 1987; 38: 351-5. 5. Eisenhauer EA, Therasse P, Bogaerts J, Schwartz LH, Sargent D, Ford R, et al. New response evaluation

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Marina Hodolic, Laure Michaud, Virginie Huchet, Sona Balogova, Valérie Nataf, Khaldoun Kerrou, Marika Vereb, Jure Fettich and Jean-Noël Talbot

U, Mishani E, Lievshitz G, Lerman H, Leibovitch I. The detection of bone metastases in patients with high-risk prostate cancer: 99mTc-MDP planar bone scintigraphy, single- and multi-field-of-view SPECT, 18F-Fluoride PET, and 18F-Fluoride PET/CT. J Nucl Med 2006; 47: 287-97. 4. Langsteger W, Balogova S, Huchet V, Beheshti M, Paycha F, Egrot C, et al. Fluorocholine (18F) and sodium fluoride (18F) PET/CT in the detection of prostate cancer: prospective comparison of diagnostic performance determined by masked reading. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2011

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Nils F. Schreiter, Martin Maurer, Ulrich-Frank Pape, Bernd Hamm, Winfried Brenner and Vera Froeling

. Ruf J, Heuck F, Schiefer J, Denecke T, Elgeti F, Pascher A, et al. Impact of Multiphase 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT on therapy management in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2010; 91: 101-9. 12. Van Riet J, Rattat D, Verbruggen A, Mortelmans L, Mottaghy FM. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT changed the therapeutic course of a patient with the sudden onset of vision problems. Clin Nucl Med 2009; 34: 27-8. 13. Frilling A, Sotiropoulos GC, Radtke A, Malago M, Bockisch A, Kuehl H, et al. The impact of 68Ga-DOTATOC positron emission