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Chawalit Lertbutsayanukul, Panit Chiewaratanapong, Naruemon Klaikeaw, Supatporn Tepmongkol, Nitra Piyavisetpat, Virote Sriuranpong and Chadin Tharavej

, Vaitkevicius V, et al. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med. 1992; 326:1593-8. 4. Kim TJ, Kim HY, Lee KW, Kim MS. Multimodality assessment of esophageal cancer: preoperative staging and monitoring of response to therapy. Radio Graphics. 2009; 29:403-21. 5. Westerterp M, van Westreenen HL, Reitsma JB, Hoekstra OS, Stoker J, Fockens P, et al. Esophageal cancer: CT, endoscopic US, and FDG PET for assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy- systematic

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Tomomi Nobashi, Tsuneo Saga, Yuji Nakamoto, Yoichi Shimizu, Sho Koyasu, Takayoshi Ishimori, Masao Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kimura and Kaori Togashi

without affecting NK2-receptor-triggered serotonin release from guinea pig colonic mucosa. J Pharmacol Sci 98, 175-180, 2005. Krevsky B, Cowan A, Maurer AH, Butt W, Fisher RS. Effects of selective opioid agonists on feline colonic transit. Life sci 48, 1597-1602, 1991. Lee SH, Jin S, Lee HS, Ryu JS, Lee JJ. Metformin discontinuation less than 72 h is suboptimal for F-18 FDG PET/CT interpretation of the bowel. Ann Nucl Med 30, 629-636, 2016. Massollo M, Marini C, Brignone M, Emionite L, Salani B, Riondato M, Capitanio S

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Vugar Ali Turksoy, Lutfiye Tutkun, Servet Birgin Iritas, Meside Gunduzoz and Serdar Deniz

2016;36:420-6. doi: 10.3343/alm.2016.36.5.420 32. Davies MJ, Gordon JL, Gearing AJH, Pigott R, Woolf N, Katz D, Kyriakopoulos A. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM- 1, VCAM- 1, PECAM, and E-selectin in human atherosclerosis. J Pathol 1993;171:223-9. doi: 10.1002/path.1711710311 33. Nahrendorf M, Keliher E, Panizzi P, Zhang H, Hembrador S, Figueiredo JL, Aikawa E, Kelly K, Libby P, Weissleder R. 18F-4V for PET–CT imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerosis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009;2:1213-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2009.04.016 34

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Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Josip Madunić, Davorka Breljak, Dean Karaica and Ivan Sabolić

2016;7:38908-26. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.7676 12. Herrmann K, Benz MR, Krause BJ, Pomykala KL, Buck AK, Czernin J. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluating response to therapy in solid tumors: where we are and where we can go. Q J Nucl Med Mol Im 2011;55:620-32. PMID: 22231582 13. Ganapathy V, Thangaraju M, Prasad PD. Nutrient transporters in cancer: relevance to Warburg hypothesis and beyond. Pharmacol Therapeut 2009;121:29-40. doi: 10.1016/j. pharmthera.2008.09.005 14. Szablewski L. Expression of glucose transporters in

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Bogdan Ştefan Creţu, Călin Dragosloveanu, Dragoş Cotor, Şerban Dragosloveanu and Cristian Ioan Stoica

fracture of metastasis in long bones. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1981;52:623-7. 11. Gary A. Ulaner; Alexandra M. Zindman; Junting Zheng; Tae Won B. Kim; John H. Healey. FDG PET/CT Assesses the Risk of Femoral Pathological Fractures in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer. Clinical Nuclear Medicine. 42(4):264–270, APR 2017 12. Haentjens P, Casteleyn PP, Opdecam P. Evaluation of impending fractures and indications for prophylactic fixation of metastases in long bones. Review of the literature. Acta Orthop Belg. 1993;59 Suppl 1:6-11. 13. Hansen BH

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Răzvan Ene, Marian Pleniceanu, Mihnea Popa, Mihai Nica, Panti Zsombor, Bogdan Şerban and Cătălin Cîrstoiu

; 177:229-36. 8. Delva R, Pein F, Lortholary A et al. Bone metastases of colorectal cancers: apropos of 8 cases. Rev Med Interne. 1993; 14:223-8. 9. Nozue M, Oshiro Y, Kurata M et al. Treatment and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients with bone metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2002; 9:109-12. 10. Nakamoto Y, Cohade C, Tatsumi M, et al. CT Appearance of Bone Metastases Detected with FDG PET as Part of the Same PET/CT Examination. Radiology 2005;237:627-34. 11. Galasko CS. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases and assessment of response to treatment. Clin

Open access

Mihaela Olaru and Cornelia Nitipir

Abstract

Myxofibrosarcoma or myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common sarcomas of the limb. It is usually treated multimodally. Most frequent sites of metastasis are the bone, lung and lymph nodes. The present paper is a case report of a 65-year-old male with myxofibrosarcoma of the fibularis longus muscle, for which he first underwent surgery - tumor resection with appropriate margins. The tumor was staged pT2b cN0 cM0. Postoperative PET-CT revealed metabolically inactive pulmonary nodules. Two months after surgery, he underwent adjuvant radiotherapy, a total dose of 60 Gy and 6 courses of chemotherapy (doxorubicin and ifosfamide). Pulmonary nodules have been stationary on all subsequent imagistic studies. He is free of recurrence on long-term follow-up.

Open access

Napa Parinyanitikul, Laddawan Vajragupta, Naruemon Klaikaew, Boonchoo Sirichindakul and Virote Sriuranpong

Abstract

Background: Liver is the most common distant metastasized organ in advanced colon cancer. Surgical resection of metastatic lesions would offer the best chance of a long-term survival. An accurate diagnosis and evaluation of extent of disease is crucial in the management of liver metastasis. Objective: Report a benign hepatic condition mimicking liver metastasis in a colon cancer patient. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male with an early stage sigmoid colon cancer was treated with sigmoidectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 5-FU, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin for six months. Annual computerized tomography of abdomen at two years after the surgery revealed three hypervascular nodules in the liver. Investigations including MRI of the liver and whole body FDG-F18 PET/CT demonstrated evidence consistent with non-metastatic liver nodules. Liver biopsy of one of the lesions led to the diagnosis of “focal nodular hyperplasia”. Conclusion: The possible etiology, diagnosis, and further management of this benign liver tumor, the focal nodular hyperplasia became clear.

Open access

Sahaphol Anannamcharoen, Chuleekorn Lawonggerd and Jirawat Wattanathum

Abstract

Background: The pathologically-based positive lymph node ratio (pLNR) has been proposed as alternative lymph node (LN) parameters to the conventional TNM staging.

Objective: We evaluated the prognostic value of the pLNR for patients with stage III colorectal after curative surgery with adequate and inadequate LN retrieval (<12).

Materials and Method: A total of 258 patients with stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma who underwent curative resection performed in Phramongkutklao Hospital from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2010 were given a regular follow-up according to established guidelines with routine physical examination, serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and colonoscopic surveillance. Imaging studies for detecting organ metastases were computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET) CT scan, and ultrasonography. Patients were categorized into four groups according to the pathologically-based positive lymph node ratio (pLNR) (pLNR1: 0.1 to 0.25, pLNR2: 0.26 to 0.50, pLNR3: 0.51 to 0.75, and pLNR4: 0.76 to 1.0). Tumor-free survival was calculated from the date of primary colorectal tumor resection to the date of appearance of local recurrence or metastatic disease. The prognostic impact of pLNR was determined in the evaluated cohort and in a subgroup of patients with fewer than 12 LN retrievals who were examined.

Results: The number of LN examined ranged from 2 to 50 with a mean (SD) of 15.8 (8.7). In all, 93 (36%) patients with fewer than 12 LN were examined. Local recurrence or distant site metastases were found in 123 (47.7%) patients during the surveillance period with a median tumor-free survival of 41 months (95% CI, 28.7-53.3). Median tumor-free survival was categorized according to pLNR as follows: pLNR1 = 56 (95% CI, 36.3-75.7), pLNR2 = 22 (95% CI, 18.5-25.5), pLNR3 = 26 (95% CI, 10.5-70.9), and pLNR4 = 8 (95% CI, 1.1-5.8) months. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) > 10 ng/dl, AJCC tumor stage 3C, and higher pLNR were found significantly associated with shorter tumor-free survival with univariate analysis. Potentially associated variables were then tested using multivariate analysis with a Cox regression model. This study found that the pLNR was the independent factor that was significantly associated with a risk of local recurrence or distant site metastases. In the evaluated cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) compared pLNR1 for pLNR2 = 2.27 (95% CI, 1.058-4.875; p < 0.01), pLNR3 = 4.365 (95% CI, 1.447-13.166; p < 0.05) and pLNR4 = 4.897 (95% CI, 1.546-15.518; p < 0.01). In the subgroup of patients with fewer than 12 LN retrievals who were examined, multivariate analysis was not consistently significant for all ranges of the adjusted hazard ration (HR) compared with pLN1 for pLNR3 = 10.552 (95% CI, 1.911-58.277; p < 0.05)

Conclusion: This study revealed pLNR was a significant independent prognostic factor that was associated with a risk of local recurrence or distant site metastases in patients with stage III colorectal cancer after curative surgery. A higher pLNR had a negative impact on tumor-free survival irrespective of the adequacy of LN retrieval.

Open access

Marela Véleza, Beata Casanas and John N. Greene

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