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Liang Hong, Mengqi Luo, Ruixue Wang, Peixin Lu, Wei Lu and Long Lu

., 2012 ); stored in paper like printed laboratory reports, copies of clinic notes, and health histories created by the individual; electronic devices such as personal computer-based software, CD, DVD, and smart card; web applications such as HealthVault and PatientsLikeMe; and cloud servers ( Chen et al., 2012 ) Medical images Data that present visual information of interior human body X-ray, CT, histology, positron- emission tomography (PET), radiography, MRI, nuclear medicine, elastography, tactile imaging, photoacoustic imaging, echocardiography (Kovalev

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V. Micheli, M. Bertelli, G. Jacomelli, A. Santucci and G. Bernardini

]. Neurochemical analysis of post mortem tissues revealed dysfunction of brain neurotransmitters, with decreased dopaminergic neuron terminals in the striatum and increased amount of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindolacetate [ 56 ]. Decreased levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite homovanillic acid, together with increased hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were found in LND patient’s cerebrospinal fluid [ 57 ]. PET neurochemical and neuroimaging in vivo studies performed in LND patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of DA neuron function in the basal ganglia