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Augustine Dick Essien, Godwin Christian Akuodor, Gloria Ahunna Ajoku, Anthony Uchenna Megwas, Donatus Onyebuchi Anele, Mercy Nwakaego Ezeunala and Alozie Ogwuegbu Okezie

Abstract

The leaves of Salacia lehmbachii are used ethnomedically across Africa for the treatment of different diseases its antimicrobial activity as well as toxicological profile were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococus aureus, Shigella species, Eschericha coli and Proteus mirabilis were compared with Gentamycin. Toxicological investigation was determined by administering 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract to male Wistar rats for 21 days with distilled water as control. Hematological and biochemical parameters as well as the vital organs were examined. The ethanol extract inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, Shigella species, E. coli and P. mirabilis to varying extents. The LD50 in rats was greater than 5000 mg/kg. Toxicological evaluation of the extract did not produce any significant effect on hematological and biochemical parameters and vital organs in rats. S. lehmbachii ethanol leaf extract did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms. Neither did it show any non-toxic effect on the parameters investigated in rats. Thus the extract can be considered safe when administered orally.

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Mohaddese Mahboubi, Rezvan Heidarytabar and Elaheh Mahdizadeh

of regulation. Ann Biol Clin 2011; 69:393-403. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/abc.2011.0589 4. Rybtke MT, Jensen PO, Hoiby N, Givskov M, Tolker-Nielsen T, Bjarnsholt T. The implication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in infections. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011; 10:141-57. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152811794776222 5. Moore NM, Flaws ML. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Lab Sci 2011; 24:47-51. 6. Rasamiravaka T, Labtani Q, Duez P, El Jaziri M. The formation of

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Ömer Ertürk

Abstract

In this study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracted Achillea latiloba Ledeb. ex Nordm (Asteraceae) samples in acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) from Trabzon Province (Turkey) were investigated. Antimicrobial activity of A. latiloba varied depending on the extract of samples, dosage of extracts, and the extraction solvents for all test microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtillis, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans were studied with use of disc diffusion and agar dilution method. The results indicated that each of the crude extracts of Achillea latiloba exhibited a more or less pronounced antibacterial and antifungal potency both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. While in the Gram-negative group, the most sensitive microorganism to Achillea latiloba were S. enteritidis and Streptococcus mutans which is Gram-positive. In the Gram-positive group, the microorganisms most sensitive to Achillea latiloba were Streptococcus mutans and L. monocytogenes. However, the least sensitive microorganism was P. vulgaris. The results presented in this paper suggest that Achillea latiloba possesses additional antimicrobial activities that has an effect against some Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

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Said Oulkheir, Hadia Boumariem, Hanane Dand, Mohamed Aghrouch, Khadija Ounine, Allal Douira and Smail Chadli

essential oil, nisin, and their combination to control Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced fish meat. Food Control 2014; 35(1):177-183. 9. Banerjee P, Satapathy M, Mukhopahayay A, Das P. Leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from widely available Indian plants: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial property and toxicity analysis. Biores Bioprocess 2014; 1:3. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40643-014-0003-y 10. Jagtap U B, Bapat V A. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seed

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Marta Panas, Adriana Baryliyak and Olena Korniychuk

communities in sickness and in health. Trends. Microbiol., 13. 589. 2005. 11. Juliana P.M.L. et al.: The antimicrobial activity of photodynamic therapy against Streptococcus mutans using dif ferent photosensitizers. J. Photochem. and Photobiol. B: Biology, 106. 40. 2012. 12. Nagata J. Y. et al.: Antibacterial photodynamic therapy for dental caries: Evaluation of the photosensitizers used and light source properties. Photodiag. and Photodyn. Ther., 9. 122. 2012. 13. Paschoal M. A. et al.: Photodynamic potential of curcumin and

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Paweł Kwiatkowski, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Małgorzata Mizielińska and Artur Bartkowiak

coli and Staphylococcus aureus . Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2:739-42. 10. Fournier B, Philpott DJ. Recognition of Staphylococcus aureus by the innate immune system. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 3:521-40. 11. Jafari A, Aslani MM, Bouzari S. Escherichia coli : a brief review of diarrheagenic pathotypes and their role in diarrheal diseases in Iran. Iran J Microbiol 2012; 4:102-17. 12. Owlia P, Saderi H, Rasooli I, Sefdikon F. Antimicrobial characteristics of some herbal oils on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with special reference to their chemical

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Małgorzata Kikowska, Jolanta Długaszewska, Marcelina Maria Kubicka, Izabela Kędziora, Jaromir Budzianowski and Barbara Thiem

REFERENCES 1. Souli M, Galani I, Giamarellou H. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in Europe. Euro Surveill 13; 2008. 2. Driscoll JA, Brody SL, Kollef MH. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Drugs 2007; 67(3):351-368. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200767030-00003.3 3. Ferreira AV, Prado CG, Carvalho, Dias KST, Dias ALT. Candida albicans and non- C. albicans species: comparison of biofilm production and metabolic activity of biofilms

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Mukesh Kumar Chaubey

M, Koshy M, Kow Y W, Nazar-Stewart V, Kisby GE. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: a pilot study. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008; 227(1):97-107 9. Simoniello M F, Kleinsorge EC, Scagnetti JA, Grigolato RA, Poletta GL, Carballo MA. DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures. J Appl Toxicol 2008; 28(8):957-65 10. Le Goff J, Andre V, Lebailly P, Pottier D, Perin F, Perin O, Gauduchon P. Seasonal variations of DNA-adduct patterns in open field farmers handling pesticides. Mutat Res 2005; 587(1-2):90-102 11

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Mohaddese Mahboubi and Mohsen Taghizadeh

REFERENCES 1. Brul S, Coote P. Preservative agents in foods. Mode of action and microbial resistance mechanisms. Int J Food Microbiol 1999; 50(1-2):1-17. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(99)00072-0 2. McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, et al. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370(9598):1560-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0084-3954(08)79206-6 3. Mitić-Ćulafić DS, Pavlović

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Mariola Dreger and Karolina Wielgus

- und Gewürzpflanzen SALUPLANTA 2009:383-94. 9. Angioni A, Barra A, Coroneo V, Dessi S, Cabras P. Chemical composition , seasonal variability, and antifungul activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. Stoechas from stem/leaves and flowers. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54:4364-4370. 10. Jerković I, Mastelić J, Miloš M. The impact of both the season of collection and drying on the volatile constituents of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum grown wild in Croatia. Int. J. Food Sci Technol 2001; 36(6):649-654. 11. De Martino L, De Feo V