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Mohaddese Mahboubi, Rezvan Heidarytabar and Elaheh Mahdizadeh

of regulation. Ann Biol Clin 2011; 69:393-403. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/abc.2011.0589 4. Rybtke MT, Jensen PO, Hoiby N, Givskov M, Tolker-Nielsen T, Bjarnsholt T. The implication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in infections. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011; 10:141-57. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152811794776222 5. Moore NM, Flaws ML. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Lab Sci 2011; 24:47-51. 6. Rasamiravaka T, Labtani Q, Duez P, El Jaziri M. The formation of

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Yi-hai Gu, Xiao Zhu, Jing-yun Li, Jun Zhang, Qing-yuan Zhou, Yue Ma, Chang-qin Hu, Shao-hong Jin and Sheng-hui Cui

References 1. Strateva T, Yordanov D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa - a phenomenon of bacterial resistance. J Med Microbiol 2009;58:1133-1148. 2. McGowan JE Jr. Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:s29-s37; discussion s64-s73. 3. Mesaros N, Nordmann P, Plesiat P, Roussel-Delvallez M, Van Eldere J, Glupczynski Y, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007

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Wei Guo, Jie Zhang, Jing-yun Li, Yue Ma and Sheng-hui Cui

References 1 A, Díaz E, et al. Patterns of colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intubated patients: a 3-year prospective study of 1,607 isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with implications for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 2004;30:1768-1775, 2 American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospitalacquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005

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Ömer Ertürk

Abstract

In this study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracted Achillea latiloba Ledeb. ex Nordm (Asteraceae) samples in acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) from Trabzon Province (Turkey) were investigated. Antimicrobial activity of A. latiloba varied depending on the extract of samples, dosage of extracts, and the extraction solvents for all test microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtillis, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans were studied with use of disc diffusion and agar dilution method. The results indicated that each of the crude extracts of Achillea latiloba exhibited a more or less pronounced antibacterial and antifungal potency both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. While in the Gram-negative group, the most sensitive microorganism to Achillea latiloba were S. enteritidis and Streptococcus mutans which is Gram-positive. In the Gram-positive group, the microorganisms most sensitive to Achillea latiloba were Streptococcus mutans and L. monocytogenes. However, the least sensitive microorganism was P. vulgaris. The results presented in this paper suggest that Achillea latiloba possesses additional antimicrobial activities that has an effect against some Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

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Said Oulkheir, Hadia Boumariem, Hanane Dand, Mohamed Aghrouch, Khadija Ounine, Allal Douira and Smail Chadli

essential oil, nisin, and their combination to control Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced fish meat. Food Control 2014; 35(1):177-183. 9. Banerjee P, Satapathy M, Mukhopahayay A, Das P. Leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from widely available Indian plants: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial property and toxicity analysis. Biores Bioprocess 2014; 1:3. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40643-014-0003-y 10. Jagtap U B, Bapat V A. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seed

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Yuchi Jia

-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (MurA) and inhibit MurA activity irreversibly, thus blocking the first step of bacterial cytoderm synthesis effectively and then destroying the bacteria [ 2 ]. Fosfomycin is a rapid bactericide for the bacterial breeding season; it has excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus ) and Gram-negative bacteria (such as Enterobacteriaceae , Haemophilus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and so on). In addition, fosfomycin also has good antibacterial effects on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

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Paweł Kwiatkowski, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Małgorzata Mizielińska and Artur Bartkowiak

coli and Staphylococcus aureus . Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2:739-42. 10. Fournier B, Philpott DJ. Recognition of Staphylococcus aureus by the innate immune system. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 3:521-40. 11. Jafari A, Aslani MM, Bouzari S. Escherichia coli : a brief review of diarrheagenic pathotypes and their role in diarrheal diseases in Iran. Iran J Microbiol 2012; 4:102-17. 12. Owlia P, Saderi H, Rasooli I, Sefdikon F. Antimicrobial characteristics of some herbal oils on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with special reference to their chemical

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Yuchi Jia and Xiaomei Wu

., 2005, 50, 645-651, 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2004.12.002 Bakri I.M. Douglas C.W. Inhibitory effect of garlic extract on oral bacteria Arch. Oral. Biol. 2005 50 645 651 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2004.12.002 [5] Tsao, S., Yin, M., In vitro activity of garlic oil and four diallyl sulphides against antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae , J. Antimicrob. Chemother, 2001, 47, 665-670. 10.1093/jac/47.5.665 Tsao S. Yin M. In vitro activity of garlic oil and four diallyl sulphides against antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Zheng Chen, Ning Gao and Chen Wang

infected by non- Pseudomonas pathogens. These results suggested that malignant otitis externa is observed in any patients with refractory otitis externa, including those without diabetes. P . aeruginosa is previously believed as the main pathogen of malignant otitis externa. However, recent studies have shown that P . aeruginosa infection is gradually reduced, and the positive rate of bacterial culture ranges from 27% to 54%. The number of patients with malignant otitis externa uninfected with Pseudomonas , such as methicillin-resistant S . aureus infection

Open access

Mukesh Kumar Chaubey

M, Koshy M, Kow Y W, Nazar-Stewart V, Kisby GE. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: a pilot study. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008; 227(1):97-107 9. Simoniello M F, Kleinsorge EC, Scagnetti JA, Grigolato RA, Poletta GL, Carballo MA. DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures. J Appl Toxicol 2008; 28(8):957-65 10. Le Goff J, Andre V, Lebailly P, Pottier D, Perin F, Perin O, Gauduchon P. Seasonal variations of DNA-adduct patterns in open field farmers handling pesticides. Mutat Res 2005; 587(1-2):90-102 11