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Atanaska P. Petrova, Irina D. Stanimirova, Ivan N. Ivanov, Michael M. Petrov, Tsonka M. Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Vasil I. Grivnev, Velichka S. Kardjeva, Todor V. Kantardzhiev and Mariana A. Murdjeva

clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50(5):1633-41. 4. Cabot G, Ocampo-Sosa AA, Tubau F, et al. Overexpression of AmpC and effl ux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from bloodstream infections: Prevalence and impact on resistance in a Spanish multicenter study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011;55(5):1906-11. 5. Poirel L, Nordmann P. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: mechanisms and epidemiology. Clin Microbiol Infec 2006;12(9):826-36. 6. Lee K, Lim YS, Yong D, et al. Evaluation of the

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Mohaddese Mahboubi, Rezvan Heidarytabar and Elaheh Mahdizadeh

of regulation. Ann Biol Clin 2011; 69:393-403. doi: 4. Rybtke MT, Jensen PO, Hoiby N, Givskov M, Tolker-Nielsen T, Bjarnsholt T. The implication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in infections. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011; 10:141-57. doi: 5. Moore NM, Flaws ML. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Lab Sci 2011; 24:47-51. 6. Rasamiravaka T, Labtani Q, Duez P, El Jaziri M. The formation of

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Željko Vojvodić and Danijela Daus Šebeđak

increase for quinolones, co-trimoxazole and nitrofurantoin were calculated, and expressed in percentages. The annual prevalence of resistant pathogens ( E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. mirabilis , P. aeruginosa , E. faecalis and E. faecium ), against beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin), co-trimoxazole and nitrofurantoin between 2007 – 2014 were expressed in percentages. Descriptive statistics and Microsoft Excel software were used to process data, calculate trends and create tables and graphs. 3 Results The outpatient consumption of

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Yi-hai Gu, Xiao Zhu, Jing-yun Li, Jun Zhang, Qing-yuan Zhou, Yue Ma, Chang-qin Hu, Shao-hong Jin and Sheng-hui Cui

References 1. Strateva T, Yordanov D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa - a phenomenon of bacterial resistance. J Med Microbiol 2009;58:1133-1148. 2. McGowan JE Jr. Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:s29-s37; discussion s64-s73. 3. Mesaros N, Nordmann P, Plesiat P, Roussel-Delvallez M, Van Eldere J, Glupczynski Y, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007

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Andriana Bukonjić and Srđan Stefanović

REFERENCES 1. Vlahović-Palcevski V, Morović M, Palcevski G, Betica-Radić L. Antimicrobial utilization and bacterial resistance at three different hospitals. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001; 17(4): 375-83. 2. Willemsen I, Groenhuijzen A, Bogaers D, Stuurman A, van Keulen P, Kluytmans J. Appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy measured by repeated prevalence surveys. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51(3): 864-7. 3. Raymond DP, Pelletier SJ, Sawyer RG. Antibiotic utilization strategies to limit antimicrobial resistance. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2002

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Somporn Srifuengfung, Susan Assanasen, Malulee Tuntawiroon and Sumonrat Meejanpetch

- derived iron. Infect Immun. 1998; 61:656-62. 5. Franchini M, Veneri D. Iron-chelation therapy: an update. Hematology J. 2004; 5:287-92. 6. Neufeld EL. Oral chelators deferasiox and deferiprone for transfusional iron overload in thalassemia major: new data, new questions. Blood. 2008; 107:3436-41. 7. Cox CD. Iron uptake with ferripyochelin and ferric citrate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1980; 142:581-7. 8. Cox CD, Adams P. Siderophore activity of pyoverdin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun

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Augustine Dick Essien, Godwin Christian Akuodor, Gloria Ahunna Ajoku, Anthony Uchenna Megwas, Donatus Onyebuchi Anele, Mercy Nwakaego Ezeunala and Alozie Ogwuegbu Okezie


The leaves of Salacia lehmbachii are used ethnomedically across Africa for the treatment of different diseases its antimicrobial activity as well as toxicological profile were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococus aureus, Shigella species, Eschericha coli and Proteus mirabilis were compared with Gentamycin. Toxicological investigation was determined by administering 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract to male Wistar rats for 21 days with distilled water as control. Hematological and biochemical parameters as well as the vital organs were examined. The ethanol extract inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, Shigella species, E. coli and P. mirabilis to varying extents. The LD50 in rats was greater than 5000 mg/kg. Toxicological evaluation of the extract did not produce any significant effect on hematological and biochemical parameters and vital organs in rats. S. lehmbachii ethanol leaf extract did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms. Neither did it show any non-toxic effect on the parameters investigated in rats. Thus the extract can be considered safe when administered orally.

Open access

Nachimuthu Ramesh, Manohar Prasanth, Subramani Ramkumar, Maray Suresh, Ashok J. Tamhankar, K. M. Gothandam, Sivashanmugam Karthikeyan and Bulent Bozdogan

Macrogen, South Korea for sequencing. Sequence homologies were determined using a nucleotide BLAST analysis at BLAST and identified at a species level. Results Identification of isolates Identification of all 94 isolates included in the present study was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that among 94 isolates, 48 were E. coli, 9 K. pneumoniae , 10 P. aeruginosa , 5 Proteus mirabilis , 4 Salmonella enterica , 3 Enterobacter hormaechei , 3 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 2

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Angelina P. Vlahova, Christo K. Kisov, Elka V. Popova, Irina A. Haydushka and Vanya N. Mantareva

(ΙΙΙ)-phthalocyanines in the photodynamic inactivation of planktonic and biofi lm cultures of pathogenic microoorganisms. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2011;10:91-102. 10. Konopka K, Goslinski T. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry. J Dent Res 2007;86(8):694-707. 11. Al-Dwairi ZN. Infection control procedures in commercial dental laboratories in Jordan. J Dent Educ 2007;71(9):1223-7. 12. Kugel G, Perry R, Ferrari M, Lalicata P. Disinfection and communication practices: a survey of US dental laboratories. JADA 2000;131(6);786-92. 13

Open access

Ivan V. Yankov and Tonyo Il. Shmilev


Ventilator-associated pneumonias have been estimated to be the second most common nosocomial infections among children treated in intensive care units. They occur in mechanically ventilated patients through intubation tube or tracheostomy, the infl ammation usually involving the lung parenchyma. The ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with a longer antibiotic treatment, greater duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and higher mortality rates in children. The condition is also associated with a higher cost of the treatment. This paper reviews and comments in detail the criteria formulated by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNSI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonias in children. The disease etiology is associated with the typical causes of nosocomial infections in this age: P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The pathogenesis of the condition is inadequately studied but the aspiration of gastric contents and immune defi ciency are proven risk factors. Two mechanisms have a major role in the development of the disease - micro-aspiration of gastric contents and colonization of the lower airways with pathogens.